The Sun 'S Energy and Photosynthesis

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Photosynthetic organisms are those who convert the sun’s energy through a process called photosynthesis. They are also referred to as autotrophs. These organisms include plants, algae, and some bacteria. These organisms take in energy from the sun and water. They then complete the steps of photosynthesis and produce oxygen and glucose. All living organisms on earth require oxygen to survive. Plants provide a continuous supply of oxygen for these organisms. Without plants, there would be less oxygen molecules present in the atmosphere, creating a potential threat to organisms that require oxygen.

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The photosynthetic organisms use their internal makeup to carry out the process of photosynthesis. Their makeup is different from that of organisms such as animals. Plant and algae cells contain chloroplasts where photosynthesis takes place. The light reactions of photosynthesis drive the transformation of solar energy into ATP. The chloroplasts of plants contain pigment molecules (chlorophyll) which are responsible for capturing the light from the sun. This energy is referred to as excitation energy. Once the excitation energy is detained, it is then transported throughout the chlorophyll molecules. The energy is taken to the reaction center; also know as a chlorophyll A molecule. Here, an electron from the energy is transferred from the reaction center to an electron receptor. The energy is now missing an electron. This causes the molecule to replace it with an electron from a water molecule, producing oxygen.

Once the electron is displaced from the reaction center, it is moved through the electron transport system. Through this phase, the energy from the electron is funneled into small amounts that can be used. These small amounts of energy then allow protons to move into the thylakoid. This creates a build up of protons which are then used to make ATP. The ATP that is produced serves as the energy source to create glucose. Humans do not possess the necessary pigments and organelles within their cells to perform this action. Humans get energy from ATP, they do not produce it. They have the absence of chloroplasts which is the main organelle involved in photosynthesis. Instead, humans use the byproducts of photosynthesis to obtain energy.

The way to get the largest amount of energy rom algae would be to eat it directly. If the algae would have been fed to the cow first, the energy would have also been consumed by the cow. The energy produced by the algae would then be used directly by the cow’s cells. It would use the energy to perform its everyday functions much like a human would. This means that when the human were to consume the cow, there would not be any energy left from the algae. When referring to the pyramid of life, it can be seen that the sun has the most energy. This is the reason why photosynthetic organisms are next on the pyramid. They get energy directly from the sun where as other organisms must get energy from other resources. If the human were to eat the algae instead, they would get a larger amount of energy. This is because according to the pyramid, plants have a larger amount of stored energy than cows, also known as herbivores.

Energy can be defined as “the ability to do work”. Energy can neither be destroyed nor created, however it can be converted into different types of energy. Energy exists in different forms throughout the environment. Two main forms of energy are kinetic and potential energy. Kinetic energy means tat objects or organisms are currently performing some kind of movement. Potential energy means that the object or organism has the ability to perform these actions; however it is not at the moment. This is also known as stored energy. The transformation of potential energy to kinetic energy is one of the most common transformations. Energy originates from the sun. This provides the organisms and objects on earth with the energy that is present. The sun’s energy is then transformed into other forms. Such as energy for plants. Organisms then obtain the energy from the plants and transfer it to objects. Forms of energy include: mechanical, heat, sound, electric current, light, and radiation energy. Each of these types of energy can be transformed through their own process. (Johnson 2012)

Glucose is required for the human body to make ATP. ATP is the animal cells main form of energy. With a loss of glucose, it is nearly impossible for cells to create energy. This inhibits cells from performing a large number of actions. These actions range from the movement of the cell to the chemical processes that take place within it. The energy from ATP allows the cell to crawl and move extra appendages such as flagella and cilia.ATP energy is also used for transportation within the cells. It assists in transporting items throughout the cells cytoplasm as well as importing items inside and outside of the cell. This can include amino acids and the actions of the sodium potassium pump. Chemical reactions are also due to the production of ATP. Often, when a large amount of ATP energy is expelled, a chemical reaction will take place. For example, the creation of proteins is enacted by the release of ATP energy. Also, ATP is responsible for providing the energy to make muscular movements. The energy causes the muscle fibers to rub together and make the movements of the muscular tissue. Without a supply of glucose to make the ATP, these vital processes would not take place. This means that cells would not be able to maintain internal homeostasis. Their balance of molecules such as potassium and sodium would be thrown out of order. Also, it would not be able to make the proteins necessary and could not carry out the chemical processes needed. This would cause the failure of cells, resulting in the failure of the organism. This would also result in the organism’s inability to move the muscular tissue as well as the movement of cells. The immobility of cells would inhibit the performance of bodily functions. (Johnson 2012)

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