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Criminological theory is a goal to help one gain an understating of crime and criminal justice. Theories cover the making and the breaking of the law, criminal and deviant behavior, as well as patterns of criminal activity, they can be used to guide policy making, and can be evaluated on a number of criteria including: clarity, scope, parsimony, testability, practical usefulness, and empirical validity, these criterions help us to decide which of the theories are true or false or which theoretical explanation is better than the other to describe crime or the criminal justice. For instance, the Empirical Validity is the most important criterion for judging a theory. This simply means that a theory has been supported by research evidence. This type criteria are done by scientists by means of collecting data through direct observations or experiments. The importance of criminological theories is to provide society with a greater perceptive for persons actions as to why they portray criminal behavior and a better explanation of the systems which are put in place for persons who part takes in criminal activities. Criminal behavior can also be explained with criminological theories.
Over the years theories have evolved drastically, as criminologists explore the best solutions in ultimately reducing different types and levels of crime in the world today. It is also important because it points us in the correct direction as to what to look for, (e.g., quality of homes in communities, peer groups etc.). It also gives us a better prospective as to what we can ignore and what we need to pay attention to. There are numerous types of theories which provide us with different clarifications for criminal and deviant behavior, which is of great importance to society. Some of these theories are The Rational Theory, Deterrence Theory, Classical Theory, Biological Theories, Born Criminal Theory, Labeling Theory, Positivist Theory, Humanistic Psychological Theory etc. and they all see criminal behavior from a different approach.
First and foremost, the Rational Choice theory was first presented by economist and later embraced by criminology contemplates in the late 1970s. Rational Choice theory in criminology arises out of the same utilitarian philosophy as deterrence associated with the classical school of criminology developed by Cesare Beccaria. Working from the established school of criminology and the hypothetical structure of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham talk about the idea of math of delight or sybaritic analytics, epicurean math expresses that individuals will measure the conceivable delights from carrying out the wrongdoing against the conceivable agony from punishment, and act in like manner.
The Rational Choice theory is where people seek to increase their pleasure and reduce their pain. Humans are rational and can make decisions according to everyone’s own will and purposes. Under this perspective, people can understand the difference between right and wrong, and can choose to commit criminal acts or to follow the law. For instance, white-collar crime. A venture broker chooses to skim cash from his customers’ records and conceals the misfortune, and afterward by and by takes the cash to support his/her luxurious way of life. The office criminal premediated and measuring the alternatives of his/her decision, chooses the individual advantage of taking cash exceeds any shot of his/her robbery being found.
However, the Deterrence Theory, was created in the 18th century Jeremy Bentham and Cesare Beccaria, who considered it as far as the danger of formal lawful discipline the assents or punishments that are connected by a state or some lawful expert. A man who has recently been reprimanded, abstains from carrying out a wrongdoing since he or she fears another measurement of discipline. For instance, someone will avoid perpetrating criminal activities because he or she may feel that others near them will dislike and reject them, and that dread shields them from carrying out violations, at that point they will be discouraged, (e.g. imprisonment).