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The Types and Examples of Fallacy

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What is Fallacy?

Fallacy is the use of invalid or wrong reasoning during the construction of an argument. Many people may think that it is true, however it is false because it is a mistaken belief based on the unsound argument. Besides that, a fallacy can also be defined as a bad argument which has been agreed to be so bad as to be unrepairable.

Two Types

Fallacy can be divided into two types, formal and informal. A formal fallacy is a pattern of reasoning that is always wrong although it may seem logical. The conclusion doesn’t follow the premise. An informal fallacy is a valid argument but unsound. It originates in an error in reasoning. It can be identified though the analysis of the content of the premises.

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Examples

Appeal to Pity

Here are some types of examples of fallacies. For instance, appeal to pity which try to catch the emotions of the audience from the argument. The reason offered to support the conclusion maybe true but it may not relevant to the conclusion. It occurs when the argument points out the unlucky consequences of the person involved and try to win acceptance of us. The writer wants to make us feel sorry for him or her. The example is “You must think of your parents since they had paid so much time and money to raise you.”

Begging the Question

Besides, the next example of the fallacy is begging the question. It can be defined as circular reasoning. It occurs when the premises of the argument assume that the conclusion is true. For example, smoking is harmful to our body because it can darken our lungs.

Red Herring

Moreover, red herring is one of the example of fallacy. It is also known as smoke screen or wild goose chase. It is a distraction from the argument with some sentiment that seem relevant but it is not relate to the topic. It distracts the attention from the real issue. For example, “There are abandoned puppies in front of your house. Eat your dinner!”

Slippery Slope

Furthermore, the example of fallacy is slippery slope. It is an argument suggests that taking a minor action will to extreme outcomes. The slippery slope suggests that unlikely or ridiculous outcomes are likely where there is without sufficient evidence to prove so. For example, if you allow your child to take your money without your permission, then they are going to become a thief and steal other people’s property when they grow up.

Bandwagon

The last example of fallacy is bandwagon. It is a fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid which means everyone believes it so you should too. It assumes something is true because many people agree with it. For instance, everyone on the campus is wearing Nike sneakers, later I am going to buy one too.

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