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In this study, Pool, Carter, Johnson, and Carter documented the designing of a Tier 2 math intervention during a case study that involved ten third graders in a school located in northwestern part of the United States. Every school who designs a tiered intervention system seeks to find a model that is tailored for their individual needs.
Every RtI model includes the same basic design. Tier 1 involves core instruction with the classroom teacher while Tier 2 includes targeted, small group instruction, usually provided by the classroom teacher, followed by Tier 3 which involves a specialist or interventionist whose strength lies in their ability to teach mathematics to the smallest groups of students who have the most deficiencies. Instruction included demonstrations, both spoken and illustrative descriptions, guided and individual practice.
The Tier 2 teacher collected both daily and weekly progress monitoring data on each of the ten students involved in the study. Student progress was monitored closely to determine whether or not the instructional interventions were successful and were modified as necessary. The analysis of the data showed positive outcomes for all students leading the researchers to conclude that the Tier 2 instruction, in this case study, led to a high quality Tier 2 math intervention model.
In this study, recommend a mathematics screener that will also provide diagnostic data in the six important areas that create the foundation for strong mathematical abilities. This screener, called the Primary Mathematics Assessment (PMA) has been designed for the early, K-2, grades. The screener, which takes about ten minutes per student, will identify the students who are in need of further assessments. The research-based screener has been given to over 10,000 students in each K-2 grade level over the previous three years. The data provides a more complete picture of the strengths and weaknesses of each student and provides a roadmap of each student’s needs, which will allow school districts to use their intervention resources efficiently.
The researchers concluded that districts and teachers who use an efficient method for identifying at-risk students, will create a positive learning environment and more appropriate intervention model to support their students and improve overall education. They recommend the Primary Mathematics Assessment, which has shown high reliability, so that at-risk students are identified and able to get the necessary help early enough to positively support their future math learning. No follow-up information was provided In this study, examined conceptual knowledge which is how a student understands mathematical ideas and whether or not they can use that knowledge in new ways. They also looked at how students apply procedures to different types of math problems. The data was collected from the school’s most recently administered MAP assessment. Students below the 25th percentile were included in this study. Additional data was collected throughout the intervention process and included two single-skill probes each week for each student. The analysis of the data showed that all students grew during the intervention process which lasted four weeks. The researchers concluded that conceptual knowledge (and understanding) interventions were less effective than procedural fluency interventions and recommend that further research is warranted. No follow-up information was provided In this study, investigated a method for teaching mathematics story problems to third graders, and also focusing on explicit instructional strategies the students could use as the problems became more difficult.
Data was collected on ten third grade students from the lowest ability classroom in a Miami-Dade County Public School. Demographics for each student was collected in addition to three separate, word problem related competencies. The three competencies were paraphrasing (being able to list the important information), visualizing (being able to draw a picture to represent the word problem), and computation (determining the correct answer). To analyze the data, three graphs were created for each student, comparing their starting point, progress monitoring data, and ending points.
The researchers concluded that the majority of the ten students improved their skills over the course of the intervention, making it a successful intervention. They also recommend further assessment because there may have been an impact on both the student and teacher behaviors due to having a researcher present during the intervention instructional period. No follow-up information was provided Summation.
The literature reviews discuss various studies that are all aimed at providing support for our lowest elementary math achievers. Each study provided data that supports positive outcomes when low achieving, early elementary mathematics were provided with intensive, individualized intervention strategies. The findings also show the lack of number sense with early elementary students. Because other strategies show promise, and with the limited research on the use of the Number Talks strategy, it makes sense to study the impact of this number sense strategy with our struggling students. The review of this literature confirms the validity of using the Number Talks strategy, strengthening number sense, as an important research topic. This action research topic will explore the impact of using the Number Talks strategy, in a third and fourth grade RtI math class, on benchmark testing.