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The Youth Employment Service Program

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Kailash Satyarthi once said “child labor perpetuates poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, population growth and other social problems”.

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The Youth Employment Service (YES) campaign is a partnership between the government and businesses with the aim of creating more jobs (employment) and training for the youth of South Africa. The campaign will have businesses who offer learning courses for a period of up to a year (with pay) and “on the job” training, in order to assist the upcoming generation in preparation for the working environment and in addition to this ,a platform of opportunities that most of them have struggled or are still struggling to get, will be provided to the upcoming generation. Moreover, the provision of apprenticeships will come with particular tax incentives. The problems that caused this initiative to bloom are the socio-economic challenges that South Africa faces in particular: poverty and unemployment among the youth, where poverty is defined as the state or level of being extremely poor. There six main types of poverty are:

  1. Situational: Poverty that is caused by an immediate problem or crisis, this form of poverty is temporary.
  2. Generational: Poverty that occurs as a result of a person being born into it (because the person is born into poverty they are mostly likely unable to get themselves out of it).
  3. Absolute: When people are in “absolute poverty “which means they are unable to afford goods and services or any form of necessities (water, food) that are important for survival.
  4. Relative: This type of poverty varies from country to country; relative poverty is the benchmark of the standard of living for a person in their relative country, as what might be considered to be low income by one country might be considered to be high income in another.
  5. Urban: When overcrowding, pollution and violence play huge roles in restricting people who are already in poverty, to get out of it.
  6. Rural: Occurs in specific areas where people are unemployed, struggle financially and scarcely exposed to opportunities.

Unemployment being defined as people who are actively seeking employment but can’t find seem to find employment. Discouraged job seekers or those who choose to be unemployed are not classified as “unemployed”. Additionally, there are two definitions of unemployment: the expanded definition- which refers to the people who have tried to find jobs including the discouraged job seekers and strict definition-which refers to those people who are actively seeking employment. The eight types of poverty are:

  1. Frictional: Refers to the loss of a worker’s job but having the worker actively seeking another job in the meantime.
  2. Voluntary: When workers decide not to work for a given equilibrium wage rate, whilst some just prefer not to participate.
  3. Cyclical: When workers lose their jobs as a result of a decline in aggregate demand.
  4. Demand deficit: Caused by the insufficiency of demand to create or reach full employment.
  5. Structural: When particular industries fall as a result of drastic long term changes.
  6. Regional: “When structural employment affects local areas of an economy”.
  7. Classical or Real: A result of wages being “too” high according to workers.
  8. Seasonal: Caused by certain industries who only distribute their products periodically (during specified periods of time) meaning the employees jobs won’t be permanent.

Firstly the Youth Employment Service’s (YES) goal is about tackling the main problems that the youth of South Africa undergo when seeking employment. This initiative especially targets rural communities because of the high unemployment rate the possess as compared to other areas. “About 5, 9-million youths in South Africa are unemployed.” The Youth Employment Service offers three channels for work experience in the assistance of combating unemployment namely: corporate experience, businesses partaking in this initiative who produce jobs for a year, SMMEs that provide placements and businesses that sponsor the salary (for a year in an SMME).Lastly if the businesses and the SMMEs are unable to assist the youth in the provision of jobs then the youth can get support and empowerment from the YES campaign to kick start their own businesses. These channels will be assisting the economy’s personal income in making an astonishing 8.4 billion a year.

SMMEs are the leading job creators because they possess a larger platform than most corporate enterprises, as they require less adverse skills, lower power and diversification.

Moreover, the whole process is also about creating the necessary resources and developing skills for those who want to start their own businesses and igniting their creativity and ideas through legitimate paperwork (getting registered and owning a certificate as proof), mentorship, apprenticeships and development. Not to mention, how the assistance of labor and the legislation and regulatory power of the government, with the commitment plus support from communities enable the platform of a vast of opportunities to bloom for the unemployed youth to gain access to these opportunities(in terms of experience and the working environment).

Unemployment has a number of causes but generally it’s caused by either too much unskilled labor or inadequate skilled labor. “This has been worsened by the growth in tertiary sectors of the economy at the expense of primary (particularly agriculture and mining) at a rate far faster than the country can be retrained.” Furthermore, the apprenticeship system lacks in enhancing skills in a variety of training components. Not to mention, how minimum wages deter employers from expanding their staff, where they (employer and employee) are prepared to work for or make payments.

The overly protective Labor laws for workers are also not helping by making the employees of new staff less attractive which depicts the power of organized labor.

Some problems require a different perspective, solution and policy thought towards the problem firstly, location and travelling affecting the minimum wages of most employees as most of their small earnings all contribute to transportation costs seeing that they live so far from the work place. Secondly, The continuous circle of poverty caused by various factors such as living conditions, skills one possess and health just to name a few which could possibly affect an employee’s image when seeking employment at a particular company or even being employable for that matter, let alone attracting a prospective employer hence high cyclical unemployment gives rise to higher structural unemployment(People who have been unemployed for a long time struggle to become employed again because they grow older, skills become rusty, performance slacks and exhaustion kicks in).

Thirdly the most important cause of unemployment refers to the shortage of skills, possessing the incorrect skills for a job makes it complex to find a job that particularly requires a certain set of defined skills.

Additionally, this allows other people from other countries to assist because opportunities will be limited according to the required skills. Fourthly pride, a hard working employee with adequate skills wouldn’t just work for any amount of wage even if they are presented with an opportunity to work. Fifthly the reduction in demand growth can also cause unemployment. As explained by President Cyril Ramaphosa that the Youth Employment Service campaign will work as follows:

  • The younger generation’s basic education will be targeted in preparation for better learning.
  • More than 330,000 jobs will be provided this year and 500,000 more in 2019
  • More training and development systems will be stressed in TVET colleges to assist students with technical skills.
  • Over 90 participants (big brands and banks) will be providing the youth with jobs.
  • The government will be introducing the reduction of costs for the businesses that contribute to the assistance of employing young workers.
  • The private sector’s investments and the public sector’s partnerships will be a part of creating more employment for college graduates.

Factors which are applicable in seeing that this campaign will be implemented successfully or that it will be a success in the near future refers to policy makers, corporations, youth employment programmers, investors and training systems. Moreover communicating, exploration and sustaining the campaign will combine all elements and components of the economy and sub sections of it, to make it a success.

Conclusion

In conclusion it is very evident that South Africa is confronted with a very serious problem of high unemployment amongst the future generation. Moreover because South Africa is becoming more skills-intensive the outline of the economy is changing as well, however not many possess these skills. It has been stressed that the solution to this problem should come from long term forecasting and upgraded immediate policies. Equally important is that the government should expand growth in informal markets, which have the realization of employment potential. The implementation of the Youth Employment Service will enable economic agents, businesses, socio-economic challenges and the South African economy to improve, develop and blossom.

Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can order our professional work here.

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