Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
The Cuban revolution was quite complicated due to the intertwined conflicts taking place within the period of revolution. There were three wars during and the aftermath of the overthrow of the government. The conflicts were the war of liberation from U.S. dominance, the civil war between socialists and capitalists and the proxy war between the U.S. and the USSR. The outcome of the revolution was the success of getting rid of U.S. influence on Cuba and the reformation of political and economic structure into a communist, socialist state. In order to clarify which was it, the seeds of the revolution has to be examined. The revolution was both a socialist revolution and a war of liberation, however the elimination of the U.S. can be considered as a required task in completing the revolution and an intended by-product of bringing down Batista’s regime. This made it more a socialist revolution rather than a war of liberation because the goal was not just to get rid of U.S. influences but also to overthrow Batista’s dictatorial regime and reform the economic and political structure based on communist perspectives, and it was heavily influenced by the motives of two important individuals; Fidel Castro and Che Guevara.
The overthrown of Batista’s government begotten reformations for the government and the economy. The idea was to first establish nationalism within the country and follow Marx’s communist theory as well as incorporate socialist ideas in restructuring the political orders and economic basis. After Batista fled Cuba and Castro took over, they nationalized the lands that were owned by the U.S. companies and returned them to the farmers. He turned the economy into a socialist economy. For example, he turned sugarcane farms into cooperative companies, thus making it possible for farmers to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs by looking after one another and democratically owning and controlling the business. The government also give 50 to 60 percent of the profit that casinos made to support welfare programmes. In addition, socialism movement and reforms during the cold war period upset the U.S. and led to them imposing trade embargo and ending diplomatic relations with Cuba. The fact that this put Cuba at odds with the United States indicates that not only that the revolution tries to get rid of U.S. influence but also to for Cuba to show that they don’t need other countries to help them in driving their economy. They wanted to be a full socialist state that can handle on their own.
The motives behind the head revolutionaries, Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, were also a great indicator of how this was more for the country than just getting rid of United States. Both of them were from wealthy families. Che himself was from an intellectual class and was a medical doctor. They were among those people who have a radical, anti-imperialist thinking who possess a revolutionary vision and it seeds the uprising. Castro and Guevara cared for Latin Americans and was against oppressive act. His concerns weren’t only to Cubans but to all Latin Americans. To them, Latin America was a single entity that needed saving from oppression, poverty and diseases that came along with the colonists. Latin America was struggling with powerful nations trying to take control over them. Fidel Castro took the main stage and led the revolution. In Che Guevara’s motorcycle trip through Argentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, and to Miami, before returning home to Buenos Aires, he witnessed the enslavement of the common man by landlords and foreign-owned enterprises. Their priorities, as can be argued, were mainly focusing on improving the lives of people through communism and socialism.
Some may believe that Fidel Castro led the Cuban Revolution on behalf of ending the USA-influenced government. On April 1933, Ambassador Benjamin Sumner Welles was sent to Cuba to help settling matters between the government of Cuba and the opposing political groups where he found a partisan in Batista. As a result, Batista was inclined into taking matters into his own hands and decided to rule. He forced several presidents and assigned a few as he ran the country using puppets presidents. The poor struggled and the rich prosper, gambling was legalized, Havana became a drug port and Mafia Boss Lansky and his lieutenant Siegel turned Havana into Latin Las Vegas, the only difference was that it was worst. So it is understandable that one might think that the Cuban Revolution was rather a war of liberation than a socialist revolution because the the United States supporting Batista and benefit from his dictatorial ruling. However, we can’t ignore the fact that the Cuban Revolution was a success for the people of Cuba, and that the success was achieved because of the leadership and intellectual pluck of Castro. I did mention their motives to be for the people and if that appears to be irrelevant due to the fact that their motives were their personal feelings and ambitious, and we have no access into their minds to prove these motives to be true, I would still argue that his success displays his intentions and effort he put into reforming the political and economy structures for Cubans that were oppressed by Batista’s regime.
Even after Castro had control of Cuba, the U.S. was relentless in trying to overthrow Castro and regain their dominance on Cuba. This war of liberation was an ongoing conflict after the revolution and though one might argue that it was more of a war of liberation because Castro had help from the USSR to back them up if confrontation were really to be engaged, it was actually more like an side issue that Fidel Castro had to take care of in order to complete his reformation of the country rather something that Castro would wanted to do or expected it to turn into a war of liberation. Simply put, although the tension with the United States was expected, it was not something that Fidel or Che expected to turned out into a proxy war. Moreover, the U.S. wanted to retake their dominance on Cuba back and they were the one initiated the assassination on Fidel Castro and other war act. The overall picture of the revolution and the outcomes were credited to the socialist and communist motives of the revolution leaders and the characteristic of the proxy war. In conclusion, the goal of the revolution was to become a socialist state, not just to be freed from the influences United States on their government.