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The most common names of Tinospora cordifolia is Amrita (Sanskrit), Guduchi (Hindi), Giloe (Bengali), Amritu (Malyalam), Amridavalli (Tamil), Amritaballi ( Kannada), Tivantika (Telugu), Batindu (Punjab), Gulochi (Orrissa).
The plant is widely seen in tropical countries like India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and in Andaman Islands. It is mostly found trailing on forest trees, fences and hedges along the boundaries.
Tinospora is a common climbing shrub which is used in medicine, usually in the fresh state, though it is commercially available in the dried state. It is a climbing shrub with rough corky bark. Leaves are glabrous, cordate 5-10cm broad, acute or accuminate. The plant is dioecious. Male flowers are in fascicles and sepals are oval in shape. Female flowers are usually solitary, having ovary on the fleshy receptacle. On ripening fruits are red (Joy et al., 1998).
It hs been observed that Carbohydrates are derived from mucilage layer of the plant under the rind, surrounding the inner parenchyma or gel (Sinha et al., 2004). They comprise both mono and polysaccharides. The most important are the long chain polysaccharides, comprising glucose and mannose, known as the glucomannans [β (1, 4) – linked acetylated mannan]. Xylose, rhamnose, galactose and arabinose are also present in trace amounts along with lupeol (a triterpenoid), cholesterol, campesterol and β-sitosterol (Husain et al.,1992).
The plant Tinospora is generally prescribed in general debility, diabetes, fever, jaundice, skin diseases, rheumatism, urinary diseases, dyspepsia, gout, gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea.It is probably the most useful preparation acting as a tonic and aphrodisiac. As a tonic it is best given in infusion with or without milk. It is a popular remedy for snake-bite and leprosy. The juice mixed with the pulp of long pepper and honey is a house hold remedy for gonorrhoea. Several oils for external applications are prepared with amrita and applied to skin diseases, rheumatic affections and other nervous complaints. A small quantity of bruised stem soaked for three hours in half a litre of water and strained combined with ammonium acetate is administered in intermittent and milder forms of fevers. It is rendered more agreeable with cinnamon, cloves and other aromatics (Viswanathan, 1997).
The proximate nutritional content of Giloy leaves which showed about 5.90% ash, 51.66% moisture content, 3.60% crude fat, 7.2 protein, 70.6% carbohydrate, 6.90% crude fibre and 310.90 Kcal/100g energy value (Pandey et al., 2016).
The most common names of curry leaves are Kalasakh, Kaidaryah (Sanskrit), Mithinim (Hindi), Barsunga (Bengali), Karuveppu (Malyalam), (Tamil) Kariveppilai, Karuveppu (Kanadda), Karivepaku (Telugu), Bishahari (Assam).
Today curry leaves are cultivated in India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Australia, the Pacific Islands and in Africa as a food flavouring (Singh et al., 2014).
Curry leaves is a small aromatic tree with dark grey bark and closely crowded spreading dark green foliage. Leaves are imparipinnate and alternate. Leaflets are alternate, obliquely ovate or somewhat rhomboid, gland dotted and strongly aromatic. Flowers are white, arranged in much branched terminal corymbose cymes and fragrant. Fruits are subglobose or ellipsoid berries, purplish black when ripe and 2-seeded (Warrier et al., 1995).
All parts of curry leaves contain bioactive components; especially leaves contain proteins, carbohydrate, fiber, minerals, carotene, nicotinic acid, Vitamin C, Vitamin A, calcium and oxalic acid. Leaves of Murrya koenigii also contain crystalline glycosides, carbazole alkaloids, koenigin, girinimbin, iso-mahanimbin, koenine, koenidine and koenimbine. Triterpenoid alkaloids cyclomahanimbine, tetrahydromahanimbine are also present in the leaves. Murrayastine, murrayaline, pyrayafoline carbazole alkaloids and many other chemicals have been isolated from Murrya leaves. Bark contains carbazole alkaloids like murrayacine, murrayazolidine, murrayazoline, mahanimbine, girinimbine, koenioline and xynthyletin (Bhandari 2012).
The roots, bark and leaves of curry leaves are having various health benefits mainly appetising, carminative, antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antiseptic property. Its leaves are helpful for appetite and digestion. It is reported to be useful in emaciation, skin diseases, hemopathy, worm troubles, neurosis and poisons (Hussain et al.,1992). They are useful in vitiated conditions of kapha and pitta, hyperdipna, colic, flatulence, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting, inflammations and foul ulcers (Sivarajan et al.,1994).
The main nutrients found in curry leaves are carbohydrates, energy, fiber, calcium, phosphorous, iron, magnesium, copper, and minerals. It is rich source of various vitamins like nicotinic acid and vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin E, antioxidants, plant sterols, amino acids, glycosides, and flavonoids. Also, nearly zero fat (0.1 g per 100 g) is found in them (Suman et al., 2014).
The most common names for liquorice are Jeshthamadh (Marathi), Jothi‐madh (Hindi), Yashtimadhu, Madhuka (Sanskrit), Jashtimadhu, Jaishbomodhu (Bengali), Atimadhuram, Yashtimadhukam (Telugu), Jethimadhu (Gujarati) and Atimadhuram (Tamil) (Jyothsna et al., 2017).
Mulethi is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries, South Europe, Asia Minor, Egypt, Turkistan, Iran, and in India, it is reported to be cultivated in Baramulla, Srinagar, Jammu, Dehradun, Delhi and South India. There are several well‐marked species: Glycyrrhiza glabra, glandulifera, echinata, etc. Mulethi grows best on sandy soil near streams, usually not being found in the wild condition more than 50 yards from water.
Mulethi is a hardly herb or undershurb of pea family, found in subtropical and warm temperate regions. It is up to four or five feet, oval leaflets, leaves are multifoliate, imparipinnate. Flowers have axillary spikes, papilionaceous, and lavender to violet in colour; pods are compressed, containing reinform seeds having white to purplish in color. Flower form in clusters. It also have extensive root system with a main taproot and numerous runners. The main taproot, which is harvested for medicinal use, is soft, fibrous, and has a bright yellow interior.
A large number of components have been isolated from the Mulethi roots. 40-50 percent of total dry material weight of Mulethi is accounted by water-soluble, biologically active complex. The complex of Mulethi includes starches (30%), pectins, polysaccharides, simple sugars, gums, mucilage (Rhizome), amino acids, triterpene saponin, flavonoids, mineral salts, bitters, essential oil, fat, asparagines, female hormone estrogen, tannins, glycosides, protein, resins, sterols, volatile oils and various other substances are components of this complex (Bradley 1992; Hoffmann 1990). The primary active ingredient, Glycyrrhizin (glycyrrhizic acid; glycyrrhizinate) constitutes 10–25% of Mulethi root extract. Glycyrrhizin (a tribasic acid), can form a variety of salts. In Mulethi, it occurs naturally as calcium and potassium salts. The ammoniated salt of glycyrrhizin is manufactured from Mulethi extracts. The specifications for this salt form have been established in the Food Chemicals Codex. Cin. This salt is used as a food flavoring agent (Rahman & Sultana 2007; Wang et al., 2000).
The yellow color of Mulethi is because of the flavonoid content of the plant. Flavonoids include liquiritin, a chalcone (isoliquiritin) and other compounds (Yamamura et al., 2007). Flavonoid rich fractions include liquirtin, isoliquertin, liquiritigenin and rhamnoliquirilin. Many volatile components are present in roots e.g. geraniol, pentanol, hexanol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol. Isolation of various compounds like propionic acid, benzoic acid, furfuraldehyde, 2,3-butanediol, furfuryl formate, maltol, 1-methyl-2-formylpyrrole, trimethylpyrazine etc from the essential oil is also reported (Tamir 2001). The Indian variety of Mulethi roots show presence of Asparagine (Damle 2014).
In traditional medicine, Mulethi has been recommended as a prophylactic agent for gastric and duodenal ulcers. It is employed in dyspepsia as an anti-inflammatory agent during allergenic reactions (Ammosov & Litvinenko 2003). It is used as a contraceptive, laxative, anti-asthmatic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, and antiviral agent in folk therapy (Saxena 2005). Mulethi roots are useful for treating cough because of its demulcent and expectorant property. It is also effective against anemia, gout, sore throat, tonsillitis, flatulence, sexual debility, hyperdypsia, fever, skin diseases, and swellings. Mulethi is effectively used in acidity, leucorrhoea, bleeding, jaundice, hiccough, hoarseness, bronchitis, vitiated conditions of Vata dosha, gastralgia, diarrhea, fever with delirium and anuria (Sheth 2005; Kaur et al., 2013). It is a vital ingredient in medicinal oils used for the treatment of rheumatism, hemorrhagic diseases, epilepsy and paralysis (Kaur et al., 2013). Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis is proved (Khare 2004). Mulethi is considered as one of the best remedies for relieving pain and other symptoms such as discomfort caused by acrid matter in the stomach. It alleviates the irritating effects of acids in a better way than alkalies (Chopra & Chopra 1958). It is an excellent tonic and is also used as demulcent in catarrh of the genitourinary passages (Nadkarni 1976).
Mulethi offers a wide range of beneficial nutrients and flavonoids. It is a good source of vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid) and vitamin E (tocopherol). It is reported that it also provides some minerals such as phosphorous, calcium, choline, iron, magnesium, potassium, selenium, silicon and zinc (Joy et al., 1998).