Man has evolved through thousands of years of learning and becoming new people to become who we are today. It all originated around 2,000,000 BC when man was firstborn. It was then to 10,000 BC which would become known as the Paleolithic times or the stone age that man lived simple lives of hunting and gathering with a very slow evolution. But suddenly around 10,000 BC things quickly changed, man became more civil they began to settle, grow and learn. But why was this? Why now? There are many reasons why this is the time that things begin the change including the introductions of domestication, religion, and climate and the two towns of Gobekli Tepe and Ҫatal Hüyük and how they have demonstrated to us why the man decided to settle down and how.
From the Paleolithic to the neolithic time periods or stone age to the new stone age there were many life changes, changes that helped man shape what we are today. Changes from the culture, to economics, and agriculture, and religion. How did people deal with the fast changes and how did it impact their society? The Paleolithic Period is from 2,000,000 B.C to 10,000 BC . People lived simple lives almost as if they were animals, their jobs were to hunt, eat, and survive, while the woman’s job was to gather and watch the children. For men to survive they had to travel a lot due to the harsh environment of nature whether it being too cold or because they needed to travel with the migration patterns of animals as that was their primary food source. Settling down wasn’t possible for them as they had to travel very often so instead of building homes they would live in tree trunks or caves hens the name cavemen. For them to succeed in the killing of animals they needed tools and weapons which were made from mainly stone, bone, and ivory. They could make the materials into weapons such as hatchets, knives, and spearheads. The use of tools is one important development that took place in this time period. The people also learned how to control fire which provided them with everyday inessentials such as heat, protection, and a way to cook. The Neolithic Period begins and ends in 10,000 BC to 3,000 BC and is the dawn of settled life which would bring new advances in this world including the domestication of animals and plants, and the beginnings of religion and time depth. People lived more towards lakes and rivers instead of caves, and tree trunks. This led to the change of the jobs of the society including farming, priest, and a plethora of jobs. Unlike Paleolithic times, the man had more time to spend on learning and growing as instead of work, work, work farming required time and labor before profit. This led him to broaden the society he was living in and led to increased populations in the Neolithic Age. The more people there were allowed for larger and faster growth of their communities which created a greater network of people who could share knowledge and learn from others. The greatest impact on the creation of settled life was the invention of domesticated crops. The man was now able to plant more foods in greater quantities and get even more food and fuller bellies and a guarantee of food rather than hope they catch and kill an animal that day. Popular crops that were planted were einkorn wheat, carrots, corn, and much more. Wheat was the most important crop because it had so many more capabilities they learned how to bake it into bread and produce other food with it that filled up people more than vegetables.
The start of civilizations didn’t however just begin with the need for more laborers for crops, it was for ritual purposes. In the city of Gobekli Tepe which has been excavated and researched for years there it has been the discovered what is called T monuments. Which are very large monuments shaped like T’s with various drawings and carvings on them that symbolize animals and humans. These T’s were organized in a circular shape and are believed to be the first-ever religious temples. These very large monuments show that it could not have been accomplished by anyone one hunting and gathering tribe but rather a collective of multiple tribes. Many of the monuments show carvings of bears and humans. It’s believed that they worshiped the ideas of better luck in hunts and when agriculture was created they worshiped the sun and the rain praying for more or less. Around these monuments, people set up very close houses to each other and the monuments. Creating a community that all had in common the belief In these worships. Moving forward to the Ҫatal Hüyük city also located in turkey around 2500 years later we see an even more civilized community. These are people living together to produce larger crops and larger domestication of animals. The difference between these two places is that they no longer live together for ritual reasons but the reason because it’s easier and better living. Its believed that in this time family and love connections become more fully realized as they have more free time, it can be shown by bones. A year after a person has died they would remove the skulls and recreate the facial features and close relatives or friends would all have a chance to own this skull and celebrate that one’s life. However, through DNA samples its been proven that people buried in the same house rarely share the same DNA. Leading to the belief that as babies are born in the community they are not brought up by their mothers and fathers but by someone else in the community. These connections however to loved ones create a time-depth that has never been seen in the previous time period.
The Paleolithic time period was a time of savagery where humans and animals were almost no different we were just on the food chain as were they. But it was the growth of communities and agriculture and domestication that allowed humans to take the next step. It allowed them more time to learn and grow and share their knowledge. It allowed them to seek deeper bonds and grow their emotions. This was a critical and one of the most important times for human evolution because it is the spark that would light the fire for human growth and kick in motion, emotions, and knowledge-seeking and eventually becoming what we now define as human.
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