The two types of the HIV virus are HIV-1 group 0 and HIV-1 group M. M word refers to Major here, so we can understand that the most common type of the virus is group M. According to the paper you sent us, 90% percent of the infections are caused by M type virus. Group O is told as a more regional type which seen mostly in West Africa. They look similar but in my opinion, group M can be stronger than group O because M type is able to spread far and wide when it reaches the human body.
First of all, Faira, collected samples from eight hundred infected individuals in Central Africa. The rate of mutation of the sample HIV genomes was measured. After comparison between these genomes shared a common ancestor. HIV is a kind of RNA virus, in the text, it is mentioned that RNA viruses can evolve a million time faster than a human DNA. So, Faira and his colleagues found that common ancestor’s history began around a century ago. Type M pandemic appeared first in the 1920s. The samples collected shows the Kinshasa as the origin of the pandemic. The use of molecular clock helped to find the common ancestors appearance in the history and the location as it is told above.
According to the text, Kinshasa was a Belgian colony and an attractive center for the immigrants and so the sex workers. This caused the fast spread of the virus in the population, then the other regions in Africa. After the independence of Congo and Kinshasa, the city became an attractive destination for French-speaking workers, also for Haitian temporary workers. When they went back to their country after several years, viruses moved over the Atlantic too. The virus arrived the US in the 1970s, sexual liberalization and the other sociological events and tendencies caused the virus spread quickly.
In this question I will argue the spread of virüs is driven by ecological or evolutionary factors. Here mutation can be shown as an example of an evolutionary process. As we know that HIV viruses can replicate their codes very fast and mutations occur in this process. Mutation is like an insurance fort he species continuity. By mutation genetic variety is ensured and this help to make easier the adaptation to external factors.
However, in natural selection, the genetic variation of species is important. In the process of natural selection, the populations with high genetic variation, the continuation of the descent are much easier. By eliminating those that are weak during adaptation, the individuals who are more suited to the external conditions are kept alive and these good genes are transferred to the next generation. In this case, mutation of HIV is inevitable due to its fast replication this is the one part of the spreading process. Strengthened new individuals adapt to the external conditions better.
However, the spreading process, in my opinion, is caused by the ecological factors mostly. Biotic and abiotic factors of the environment alter the speed of spread. Intraspecific or interspecific relations can change the spread speed. According to the text, economic, social and political activities of humans affected the spreading process. Many people from the other parts of the continent or the World traveled to Kinshasa at those times. On the other hand, climatic abiotic factors can help the rapid spread of the virus such as temperature.
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