Association, American Polygraph. “Frequently Asked Questions.” Polygraph. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. The author of this article supports the Polygraph Machine as they are the A.P.A. This website article written by the American Polygraph Association displays frequently asked questions and responses to those questions. I find this useful for my argument because it does just argue my point in many aspects, it tells that the polygraph does indeed make errors and then refutes that by stating their procedures. Bowen, Robin, and Shneider, Jessica. “Forensic Databases: Paint, Shoe Prints, and Beyond.”
National Institute of Justice Journal (U.S. Dept. of Justice). Oct. 2007: 34-40. SIRS Government Reporter. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. Ms. Bowen is the forensic program coordinator for the Forensic Science Initiative at West Virginia University & Ms. Schneider is a graduate student in public administration at West Virginia University. This article from the National Institute of Justice lists the databases forensic databases that forensic scientists use during investigations. I am planning to use this for showing how the forensic scientist get their information perhaps some cases they would of used these in which the person was later exonerated with DNA evidence. FBI. “FBI Testimony on Microscopic Hair Analysis Contained Errors in at Least 90 Percent of cases In Ongoing Review.” FBI. FBI, 20 Apr. 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. The authors here was the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The Sum up is that 26/28 (or about 93%) of the analysts at the FBI provided error filled reports or false testimony in cases currently being reviewed. This will come in great use while providing evidence even some of the best professionals are bound to make errors with our current forensic science methods. Hsu, Spencer S. “FBI admits flaws in hair analysis over decades.” Washington Post.
The Washington Post, 18 Apr. 2015. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. Hsu is an investigative report who covers home security, immigration and politics and Congress in Virginia. This article covers the details of the FBI flaws in microscopic hair and testimony more in depth than the original press release from the FBI. I will use this to go more in depth on the issue I will list in my paper as they did with the original press release. Koehler, Jonathan J. “Error Rates in Forensic Science.” Error Rates In Forensic Science. Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law – Arizona State University, 3 Apr. 2009. Web. 10 Feb. 2016. Jonathan “Jay” Koehler has a PhD in Behavioral Sciences from the University of Chicago. His areas of interest include behavioral decision theory, quantitative reasoning in the courtroom, forensic science, and behavioral finance. This PDF file source has charts of error rates in forensic science from errors due to eyewitness reports to false confessions and then goes into depth on what they use (bite marks, hair, DNA) and also more error rates in those. I will use this PDF by Mr. Koehler to present charts and statistics easy to comprehend for readers to more clearly understand this is a big issue seldom mentioned.
News, BBC. “The Curious Story of How The Lie Detector Came To Be – BBC News.” BBC News. 21, May, 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. The BBC News magazine has been trusted by many for rather than just basic news, people trust them because of their long standing reputation of reliable information for BBC readers and listeners to rely on. This article talks on the polygraph, its history, and its use today along with people who passed it though they were lying. I plan to use this to help refute the use of polygraphs especially since, as BBC News states through George Maschke, “polygraph techniques in use today were developed by interrogators, not scientists,” which means that they are made as confessors or bluffing machines rather than a factual device although it will be at times. Project, Innocence.
“Eyewitness Misidentification.” The Innocence Project. Web. 11 Feb. 2016. The Innocence Project is a national litigation and public policy organization dedicated to exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals through DNA testing and reforming the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice. The article shown on this page present a video following a report on how or when a eyewitness gets it wrong. One of these errors includes when police give positive remarks after a picture lineup or show only one people from the picture lineup in the visual lineup. This will be key to help back my idea we need to limit eyewitness testimony in courtrooms or in fact, leave the reports only for finding suspects.
Project, Innocence. “How Many Innocent People Are There In Prison?” The Innocence Project. Web. 10 Feb. 2016. The Innocence Project is a national litigation and public policy organization dedicated to exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals through DNA testing and reforming the criminal justice system to prevent future injustice. The article on this page shows the estimated amount of people currently in prison. I plan to use this as a statistical source.