In the mid nineteenth century, coming with the Industrial Revolution was the need for mass-communication. These result in the increased opportunities for printers, advertising and posters, these also come with a greater demand for large scale, greater visual impact and expressive characters. The industrial age transformed the letters of alphabets to abstract visual forms projecting powerful concrete shapes of strong contrast and large size, which were previously just phonetic symbols.
Joseph Jackson and Thomas Cotterell became successful type designers and also founders of their own right. Cotterell started designing sand-casting large, bold display letters which eventually became a trend at 1765. His letters were about five centimeters and other founder designed and casted even more falter letter and type grew steady bold; this opened a huge gateway for inventions of fat type faces.
Robert Thorne (Cotterell’spupiland successor) designed an innovational type at around 1805. These types were a roman fat face type style whose contrast and weight had been increased by expanding the thickness of the heavy strokes with the ratio of 1:2, 5 or 1:2 to the capital height. Thorne had a competition with William Caslon IV and Vincent Figgins.
Joseph Jackson established his own type foundry and built a respectable reputation for type design and mathematical, astromenomecal and other symbolic material, numbering in the hundreds of sorts. In 1815 Figgins’ specimens showed a full range of modern styles and unique (Egyptians), this was his second innovation complete range of romans and he was producing scholarly and foreign faces.
In the 1815 Vincent Figgins placed another innovative mark by the style in which he showed an illusion of three dimensions and appeared as bulky objects rather than two-dimensional signs. The style become popular and in Countries like Germen they began to show perspective for all styles. During the industrial Revolution the Mechanization of manufacturing processes made the application of decoration more economical and efficient. Designers of furniture, household, objects and also typefaces delighted in design intricacy. In Europe and United states pictures, plant motifs and decorative designs were applied to display letterforms.
Another typographic innovation at early 1800 are the sans-serif type, that first appeared in an 1816 specimen book by William Caslon IV. These types somehow resembled an Egyptian face when the serifs were removed. These types was primarily used for subtitles and descriptive under exessivevely bold fat faces and Egyptians. By 1830 Schelte and Giesecke fundry debuted the first sans-serifs use increased in the mid-century.
Printing presses used by Bookerville and Bodoni are proven to be more similar to the first printing press use by Gutenberg. With the effect of industrial Revolution, mechanical theory was applied to the hand presses and their parts were made of metal to in order to increase their efficiency and it’s impression size. The first printing press which was fully made from cast-iron was by Charles Stanhope (1800). Printers required very less human force to function and it could print double a sheet double the size. These innovations served to improve a partially mechanized handicraft. After this came a German printer Friedrich Koening whose printer was steam-powered and it could print 400 sheets per hours, 150 sheets more than Stanhope hand press. The original design of koening was more like a hand press powered by a steam engine and amongst it’s innovations was the ability to ink the type by rollers (deter ones were hand-inked).
With these printer, many tasks were automated including the movement of the tympana and frisket’ having achieved these, Koenig again made another mark in history by developing the stop-cylinder steam-powered press, which was even more faster. It had a cylinder that carried a sheet that was to be printed and the cylinder would rotate over the type, it stopped while the form moved from under the cylinder linked by the rollers and while it was still , the pressman fed a fresh sheet on to the cylinder. He was then commissioned by John Walter II to build a two double-cylinder steam-powered press which could print 1100 90 centimeters long and 56 centimeters wide sheets of paper. The press worked similar to the first cylinder steam powers press. By Koenig’s inventions newspapers could reach reader several hours earlier.
At 1815 William Cowper also made his mark by developing a printing press using curved stereotyped plates wrapped around a cylinder. The press achieved 2400 impressions per hour and it could print 1200 sheets both sides. Like Koenig, William Couper along with his partners Ambrose Applegate were also commissioned to take their invention to the next level, so Cowper build a four cylinder steam-powered press and this press could print 4000 sheets per hour on both sides. From these onward across Europe and North America printers began to decrease in cost with stream powered of printing while the size of editions increased. Increased of printing speed mint only one thing and that it more papers needed, so in 1798 a young clerk in the Didot paper Nicolas-Louis Robert developed a paper-making machine but was shut down due to political reasons.
John Gomble was granted patent number 2487 first operational paper making machine started at Frogmore England in 1803 financed by Henry and Sealy four drinier Photography Images always hand drawn and his required more time, However Joseph Niepce (Frenchman) who first produced photographic image began his research to find a way to transfer drawings to the printing plates automatically (1765-1833). This is i how he did it, he coated a pewter sheet with light sensitive asphalt called bitumen of Judea, which had been light. Then he can tact-printed a drawing, which sunlight. He then washed the pewter plate with lavender oil to remove the parts not hardened by light, and then he etched it with acid to make an incised copy of the original Niepce called this sun engraving (helio gravure) . He continued to experiment with light sensitive materials including silver coated coppers. As time unfiled and centauries of experiments were made. A greater achievement in photography was reached on 4 March 1880, with the first reproduction of a photograph that had full range as tones in a newspaper a crude half tone screen inverted by Stephen H. Horgan. The screen would break the image in to minute dots of different sizes that made different tones.
Frederic E. Ives of Philadelphia developed the first halftone process and also worked on the first commercial production of halfstone printing plates is 1881. The illusion of continuous tones were produced by the sum of the minute dots. After these Frederick E. Ives started working with max and Louis Levy (Brothers), together the produced consisting commercial half tones using etched glass screens. They used a ruling machine to in scbid parallel lines in an acid-resistant counting on optically clear glass were stationed face-to-face with horizontal lines on the other and vertically lines on the other, so the amount of little square form by the sheets determined the size of dot and form there the begin the raised of photography.
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