The Sociology of Racial Discrimination in Employment and College

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Racial minorities made up about 37.4 percent of the general population in the US and 46.6 percent of armed and unarmed victims, but they made up 62.7 percent of unarmed people killed by police and all happened to be African Americans or Hispanics. This only proves how racism is only build up from history and how it is continuing. In addition, racism harms humanity not only physically but also emotionally. Racism and racial discrimination create a unique environment of pervasive, additional stress for people of racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. In a University of Arizona study on emotional and physical stress from perceived racism, 18.2 percent and 9.8 percent of black participants reported emotional and physical stress, respectively (American Psychiatric Association, [APA], 2017). It has also demonstrated to affect the lives of citizens by causing them depression and anxiety. A Black student is to go into an all-white school he is obviously going to have anxiety and it has even shown to raise the blood pressure of someone.

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Racism still exists within all cultures. Society will not admit they’re racist, but their actions and words prove otherwise. Most people will not directly discriminate other races, but that doesn’t mean it doesn’t happen every day. Many will argue that their race is superior over another, or that the actions of a few individuals of a certain race determines how that race of people are, therefore making them unequal. Race created socially, primarily by how people perceive ideas and faces individuals are not quite used to. Racism has been around and will continue to be here and affect multiple lives. Such as education, work ethic, and even social interactions within the community. Unjust act of racism and inequality within the school system can be dated back to 1896 with the Plessy V. Ferguson case, which resulted in “separate facilities for education” (Sánchez, 2016, par. 2) and an “equal education” (par. 2). It is from this case that society recall the term “separate but equal” (par. 3), in which whites and black had to attend separate schools but supposedly obtain an equal education. In 1899 was the Cumming V. Richmond case, in which three black families petitioned the court to allow their children to finish their high school education at a white high school, due to the closing of the local black high school, which would integrate African Americans and whites under one facility. The unfair and racial segregation even continued into the 1950 with the Sweatt V. Painter case consisted on an African American, Homas Sweatt, being denied access to the University of Texas Law School because he was black. Racism has still made its way to haunt individuals in today’s society. Racism in schools has serious consequences from fueling the school to prison pipeline to traumatizing children of color. Black students are three times more likely to be suspended or expelled than their white peers (Wormeli, 2016).

A 2016 report from the University of Pennsylvania, Center for the Study of Race and Equity in Education, found that 13 Southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia) were responsible for 55% of the 1.2 million suspensions involving black students nationwide. This makes it harder for the country to get past its background history. Separating students by color are not only harming their education but also their daily lives.Talking to one another helps clear out situations, because biases and quick classifications about people who are different from other expressions of the limited experiences with them (Wormeli, 2016). Students, teachers, parents, and educators must expect, receive, and give affection, protection, and correction while these caretakers take risks to become aware of and learn to resolve racial stress and conflict in daily social interactions. Without these ingredients, the risks of racial avoidance will be too great, and the improvement of race relations and racial climates within schools too arduous to complete. When racism starts affecting students, it is easier for others to ignore, but when it starts affecting the teachers or staff members, it becomes a more complicated issue. Black students were more than three times as likely to attend schools where fewer than 60% of teachers meet all state certification and licensure requirements. Racism in schools is not only due to color discrimination but cultures, religions, and even political choices.In recent years the nation has seen dramatic evidence of high education concerns due to racism. Not only has it got to the point where it’s affecting the students but also the faculty. Wilson’s (2005) study is preformed to support the factors of how racism is affecting society. Wilson mainly studies the number of drop out students, and why this is happening and how racism plays a part in education. In 2000, the dropout rate for African-Americans aged 14 to 24 years was 15.3% whereas the dropout rate for whites the same age was 12.2%. Practically every state reports that African-American students, particularly African-American males, disproportionately drop out of school (par. 3).

The number of drop out students is influenced by ethnicity resulting in unequal opportunities caused by racism. This puts all students who are discriminated against at a stance of unequal opportunity. The U.S. Department of Education’s 2014 Civil Rights Data Collection provides a comprehensive report that gives a clearer picture of how race and ethnicity affects the way students learn and are treated in all levels of education (Frankenberg, 2017). The report states that “Black, Latino and Native Americans have a bigger chance of going to schools with a higher concentration of first year teachers than white students” (par. 1). The same report states that black students were expelled at three times the rate of white students and observed that black girls were suspended at higher rates than all other girls, and most boys. This report makes it clear that many young people are being marginalized because of their race, which is not acceptable. Education is essential in everyone’s life, no matter their race. Equality in educational settings is something that humanity needs to work toward. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students. The participants in Cooper’s (2016) study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large Midwestern city. Cooper completed surveys in both 9th and 10th grades. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination and ethnic identity results supported a protective model of resilience. Students with low income cannot continue pursuing their education when it comes to applying and actually attending college. As students are being discriminated, they are also having unequal opportunities that will harm their future, not only for them but for their families and job openings as well. The personal racism of teachers can extend beyond derogatory thoughts and remarks about students (Schafft, 2017). The fact that most teachers are middle class whites causes schools to be run according to the values and beliefs of this class. Sometimes, some of the values peculiar to this class are assumed to be created at general human values. When this happens, black students are made to feel that some of their behavior is wrong, when in fact it is only different. When teachers are being influenced by racism it produces, a wall between them and their education that makes it hard for students to access their schooling.

Less than half of American Indian and Native-Alaskan high school students had access to the full range of math and science courses, which consists of Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II, calculus, biology, chemistry and physics. Building obstacles between education and students due to racism only proves how we are still being followed by the past, and not moving on to become a better environment. Racism has not only found a way to hurt education, also its found its way into romantic relationships and into the workforce. racial incivility or selective incivility is a racial workplace discrimination that allows an individual to perpetuate racism by masking it in everyday acts, whether they know or not. Given that any form of racial discrimination in the workplace is no longer socially or legally tolerated. Also, racial incivility has emerged as a method for the continuance of racism that damages workers and work ethic as well. If black and minority ethnic talent was fully utilized in the UK, the British economy could be boosted by up to $29 billion (Becerra, 2015). Becerra’s study proves to the statement of there being racial discriminations in the workplace without noticing and pretending they are everyday acts. This affects the workers in all mental states, but it also affects their work ethic as they may be pressured or uncomfortable when they are doing their job. This creates employment discrimination and racial discrimination.Hammartsrom (2012) talks about gender practices of working life create gender inequalities especially when they are separated into different color humans. Gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in jobs between men and woman.

The aim was to analyze what gender inequality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss the possible implications for job experiences. It shows in racism there exists unequal opportunities especially in the workplaces. Inequalities not only in work ethic but also affect their salary when it comes to pay women or men, the women are always looked down on for their gender. Racial and ethnic preferences are unjust (par. 2). In the US the picture is equally troubling. Black people identified discrimination as a major reason why they have a harder time getting ahead. Blacks are more likely than whites to say black people are treated less fairly in the workplace, by a difference of 42%. By a margin of at least 20%, blacks are also more likely than whites to say racial discrimination (70% vs. 36%), lower quality schools (75% vs. 53%) and lack of jobs (66% vs. 45%) are major reasons that blacks may have a harder time getting ahead than whites. Hammartsrom also shows how lack of economic opportunity spills over into household income, regardless of education level. In 2014, income for households headed by blacks was $43,300, and for whites it was $71,300 (par. 5). Among adults with a bachelor’s degree, blacks earned significantly less in 2014 than whites $82,300 for households headed by a college-educated black compared with $106,600 for comparable white households.Racial segregation between American workplaces has grown greater today than it has ever been (Ferguson, 2017) . This increase has happened alongside the declines in within-establishment occupational segregation on which most prior research has focused. It’s influencing the people that surround them whether their consumers or providers. Racism encourages gaming the system of duty.Racism has made its way into society’s’ personal environment. Romantic relationships had been affected by the racism effects from back then. When it came to marriage in 1501-1865 whites were only allowed to marry whites. Blacks were being force into the slavery era and did not have any rights and were influenced to hide their emotions and feeling (West, 2016).Interracial marriages between blacks and majority group members often face higher social sanctions than other types of interracial marriages. Therefore, majority group members in interracial marriages with a black partner may learn to conceptualize racial issues differently than those without black partners. This paper conducts a preliminary investigation into whether the racial perspectives of white spouses in interracial marriages with blacks are different from the perspectives of whites in interracial marriages with non-blacks (par. 3). White partners of twenty-one interracial marriages are interviewed. While whites married to non-blacks alter their racial perspectives, they do not experience racism as do whites married to blacks. These experiences of racism may change white perspectives on specific racial issues such as affirmative action and racial profiling.Lowe (2017) also gives a story about how a girl in high school wanted to go to prom but her mom didn’t let her go with her boyfriend because he was black. Most people would not believe this was the reason of her not going or that she was being racist. The mother said how everyone was biased in their own way and didn’t have to be in a harming way. There ways that might be considered a subtle form of discrimination and no one is fighting against it. As racism grows it only makes humanity look at as a normal act (par. 5).

Social Impact and Interaction explores these questions as it recaps the history of race-centered research from its origins in the late 1700s to Darwin's influential work on natural selection to the present. It is a compelling introduction to the way race science initially gained acceptance and how race studies both reflect and shape their times. Racism has a major influence when it comes to interacting with others and having a social life. In today’s society we face multiple discriminations as part of our daily lives who would’ve thought till this day we still would face racism in our world and time period. Your relationship needs to be tight enough not to let naysayers, societal pressure and family opinions wedge you apart, explained Stuart Fensterheim, a couple’s counselor based in Scottsdale, Arizona (Weidman, 2004). Viewers were then shown images of same-race couples, mixed couples and silhouettes of animals and humans and asked to press a button as quickly as possible to indicate which images showed animals or humans. Weidman participants were faster to identify same-race couples as humans. But one of the bigger take ways of that experiment was that when people were already made to feel disgusted by racism, they were more likely to elicit a strong reaction against interracial couples. It’s a warning, Weidman said, that this country has not gotten rid of its bias against interracial romance. Racism has come to affecting romantic relationships. Racism in schools affects the daily outcome of student’s education achievements. Racism in schools has serious consequences from fueling the school to prison pipeline to traumatizing children of color. Anderson (2016) says some may argue that there being barriers in school concerning racism actually helps students try more and want to surpass that barrier of being held back by racial discrimination. Wilson’s (2005) study is preformed to support the factors of how racism is affecting society.

Wilson mainly studies the number in drop out students, and why this is happening and how racism plays a part in education. He explains how many students are being pressures to go beyond the discriminations and further their education, but it’s actually only harming them emotionally and mentally. The community has created an outlook in the working environment how white men should get paid more than blacks or Latinos including females. Chuasiriporn (2018) elaborates how often the population thinks white should be paid more in the workforce then black and Latino men and woman, because they think they have further education than minorities. This study explains how with white men having more education they are the only ones who can bring good to the community. This study shows in racism there exists unequal opportunities especially in the workplaces. Inequalities not only in work ethic but also affect their salary when it comes to pay women or men, the women are always looked down on for their gender. Racial and ethnic preferences are unjust (Hammartsrom, 2012). When it comes to racism existing in romantic relationships many want to argue how it’s not racism but rather preference (Nguyen, 2017). Nguyen stated how as different colored men approached her online and she was only attracted to her own race men. West (2016) explains how everyone is biased in some way or another. There ways that might be considered a subtle from of discrimination and no one is fighting against it. This shows how racial discrimination can affect romantic relationships by not being able to date someone because of their color or because of their religion. These conclusions are made from the background of racism and how it’s been handled in society psychologically. The effort being put to end racism has been endless, regardless of the dedication society puts racism always finds its way to haunt us. Whether it’s in schools affecting student’s education, in the work environment damaging workers work ethic, or even in romantic relationships making it harder each day to find love. It is a duty to educate the population about the negative effects of racial discrimination to help grow as a country. Preventing implicit racial discrimination can be a difficult task to accomplish, but it can be possible by taking baby steps.

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