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Using Cell Phone During Driving

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  In the article by David L. Strayer and Frank A. Drews, they both came up with the idea if there were any effects when the drivers were driving while doing hands-free conversations. The findings also were done by four studies to see whether single-tasking or dual-tasking affected the driver’s ability to describe and observe what was presented in front of them while they were driving in a simulation driving.

The research question according to the article that was discussed was does ‘cell-phone conversations impair driving by inducing a form of inattention blindness..’. The major findings relating to these questions are the driver’s vision was obstructed because they were unable to see the objects that were present to them during their driving simulation from the drivers being on their cell phones.

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With the support of their first finding. In the first study, drivers were not on their phones then switched to hands-free cell phones. The findings found that the “first study examined how cell-phone conversations affect drivers’ attention to objects they encounter while driving. We contrasted performance when participants were driving but not conversing (i.e., single-task conditions) with that when participants were driving and conversing on a hands-free cell phone (i.e., dual-task conditions)” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg. 1).

Another research question that was presented in the article was whether drivers were able to see the information during the driving simulation. In addition, if they were on their cell phones or not. The major findings in the article which is an obvious finding. Stated that drivers who were on their cell phones were unable to see the information that was presented to them during their driving simulation.

The importance of the issues and scientific evidence presented in the article is that those who are on their cell-phones while driving are unable to see whatever people, thing, or both that is presented in front of them. Which most likely can result in an accident. For instance, if there is a driver who is on their cell phone talking, their vision is impaired. This also results in their attention is also impaired as well. In the end, their reaction time is slowed down. Impairing them from focusing on the objects that could come in front of them while driving. Such as a dog, a small child, or a sudden object in their way. About how the research questions, discussions, and findings relate to society as a whole is that in today’s society everyone has a phone in their face. Cell-phone brings a pleasant feeling to people. There are some people whose whole world is connected to their phones. So with the increase in newer and high tech phones. The same thing goes with newer and high-tech cars that accommodate the epidemic of cell phone use in cars. The data in the article found that “ that drivers using a cell phone will be less able to react with alacrity in situations that demand it because of the diversion of attention from driving to the phone conversation (see also Strayer, Drews, & Johnston, 2003)”(Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg. 3). With recent research on distracted driving due to cell phone use. Now cars are being made Bluetooth themselves to people’s cellphones. In different forms as well. For example, to reduce distracted driving cars are now reading people’s emails, messages, and/ or notifications for drivers.

The issues and scientific evidence in the article relate to topics discussed in the lecture and the text by research methods. Which is a topic that is discussed in the text and class. An example of how research method was used in the article is “…the four studies we report here used a computerized driving simulator (made by I-SIM; shown in Fig. 1) with high-resolution displays providing a 180-degree field of view” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg.1 ). Another is “we monitored the eye fixations of participants using a video-based eye-tracker (Applied Science Laboratories Model 501) that allows a free range of head and eye movements, thereby affording naturalistic viewing conditions for participants as they negotiated the driving environment” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg. 2 ). Another topic that was discussed in class and text is conditional learning. The article stated “… the first study focused on the conditional probability of participants recognizing objects that they had fixated on while driving. This analysis specifically tested for memory of objects presented where a given driver’s eyes had been directed. The conditional probability analysis revealed that participants were more than twice as likely to recognize roadway signs encountered in the single-task condition than in the dual-task condition” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg.2)

In the article by David L. Strayer and Frank A. Drews, they both came up with the idea if there were any effects when the drivers were driving while doing hands-free conversations. The findings also were done by four studies to see whether single-tasking or dual-tasking affected the driver’s ability to describe and observe what was presented in front of them while they were driving in a simulation driving.

The research question according to the article that was discussed was does ‘cell-phone conversations impair driving by inducing a form of inattention blindness..’. The major findings relating to these questions are the driver’s vision was obstructed because they were unable to see the objects that were present to them during their driving simulation from the drivers being on their cell phones.

With the support of their first finding. In the first study, drivers were not on their phones then switched to hands-free cell phones. The findings found that the “first study examined how cell-phone conversations affect drivers’ attention to objects they encounter while driving. We contrasted performance when participants were driving but not conversing (i.e., single-task conditions) with that when participants were driving and conversing on a hands-free cell phone (i.e., dual-task conditions)” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg. 1).

Another research question that was presented in the article was whether drivers were able to see the information during the driving simulation. In addition, if they were on their cell phones or not. The major findings in the article which is an obvious finding. Stated that drivers who were on their cell phones were unable to see the information that was presented to them during their driving simulation.

The importance of the issues and scientific evidence presented in the article is that those who are on their cell-phones while driving are unable to see whatever people, thing, or both that is presented in front of them. Which most likely can result in an accident. For instance, if there is a driver who is on their cell phone talking, their vision is impaired. This also results in their attention is also impaired as well. In the end, their reaction time is slowed down. Impairing them from focusing on the objects that could come in front of them while driving. Such as a dog, a small child, or a sudden object in their way. About how the research questions, discussions, and findings relate to society as a whole is that in today’s society everyone has a phone in their face. Cell-phone brings a pleasant feeling to people. There are some people whose whole world is connected to their phones. So with the increase in newer and high tech phones. The same thing goes with newer and high-tech cars that accommodate the epidemic of cell phone use in cars. The data in the article found that “ that drivers using a cell phone will be less able to react with alacrity in situations that demand it because of the diversion of attention from driving to the phone conversation (see also Strayer, Drews, & Johnston, 2003)”(Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg. 3). With recent research on distracted driving due to cell phone use. Now cars are being made Bluetooth themselves to people’s cellphones. In different forms as well. For example, to reduce distracted driving cars are now reading people’s emails, messages, and/ or notifications for drivers.

The issues and scientific evidence in the article relate to topics discussed in the lecture and the text by research methods. Which is a topic that is discussed in the text and class. An example of how research method was used in the article is “…the four studies we report here used a computerized driving simulator (made by I-SIM; shown in Fig. 1) with high-resolution displays providing a 180-degree field of view” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg.1 ). Another is “we monitored the eye fixations of participants using a video-based eye-tracker (Applied Science Laboratories Model 501) that allows a free range of head and eye movements, thereby affording naturalistic viewing conditions for participants as they negotiated the driving environment” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg. 2 ). Another topic that was discussed in class and text is conditional learning. The article stated “… the first study focused on the conditional probability of participants recognizing objects that they had fixated on while driving. This analysis specifically tested for memory of objects presented where a given driver’s eyes had been directed. The conditional probability analysis revealed that participants were more than twice as likely to recognize roadway signs encountered in the single-task condition than in the dual-task condition” (Strayer and Drews, 2007, pg.2)

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