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Voltage Regulating Using Capacitor Bank

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To expand power factor it is desirable to utilize a compensator which reacts unexpectedly to attain efficient change of voltage direction and receptive power control. SVC has developed as a solid technique for VAR age and ingestion to get rapid receptive power pay. The different kinds of receptive power control components that constitute a static VAR framework are thyristor controlled reactor (TCR), Thyristor exchanged capacitor (TSC). These all procedures used to adjust responsive power in dispersion framework. As the terminal voltage is constantly less as contrast with sending point the fundamental reason of this is substantial inductive load. At the point when inductive load builds then the terminal voltage diminishes because of inductive load, it exasperate the power factor. Thusly the terminal voltage diminishes. So voltage control can be enhanced by utilizing shunt compensator particularly static var compensator. It is responsive power compensator gadget which is associated in parallel with the heap.

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This paper clarifies the voltage direction utilizing capacitor bank oversee by microcontroller. CT and PT are utilized as a part of this course of action. CT is connected in series with the load and PT is connected in parallel with the load. CT is directly connected with microcontroller. Microcontroller sense signal and produce an output pulse. This output pulse operates the bidirectional switch (TRIAC).Thisswitch turns ON the capacitor bank and improve power factor as well as voltage regulation.

Introduction

High power electronic devices and FACTS contraptions are extensively used as a piece of intensity framework. These devices have brisk exchanging time and dynamic response. The static var compensator is extensively used for improving force factor and voltage direction. The static var compensator presented at the client endpoint which upgrade control factor and also improve voltage bearing. The unmistakable features of static var compensator are to restrict the voltage change and framework steadiness. Electric vitality is delivered in charge station. At that point advance up through transformer and is transmitted by three stage three wire framework. After transmission it goes to a substation. In substation it venture down and afterward disseminated through conductors. Dispersion framework is isolated into two sections to be specific essential conveyance and auxiliary circulation. The essential appropriation framework comprises of 3-stage three wire frameworks which can be ≥ 11kv and this line is then feed to the dissemination transformers. Each circulation transformer gives 220 volt or 400 volt by methods for 3-stage four wire frameworks.

All clients are related with these discretionary movement lines. In any case an influence framework construct has been going up against variety of issues with the scattering and transmission of force, for instance, voltage wavers with stack, poor influence factor, significant disasters, and supply voltage mutilation, impedance with correspondence lines and so forth. These all parts convey voltage drop in the line. Their powers may differ yet every one of these issues exists in the essential transmission line, sub-transmission lines and circulation lines. The fundamental stress in the paper is to improve voltage direction, to decrease hardships in discretionary course, voltage control and imperativeness protection in a conveyance framework. These goals will accomplish shape the static VAR compensator. Static var compensator is a receptive power controlling gadget which used to remunerate responsive power. It is associated in parallel toward the finish of buyer point. Shunt pay used to infuse the current in parallel in the circulation line. By infusing current in the line it diminishes the responsive part of the heap current.

Diminishing the responsive segment enhances the power factor which enhances the voltage direction. Shunt compensator have numerous composes yet this paper depends on thyristor exchanged capacitor. In this paper the standard methodology used for voltage control, robustness, and highlights of cutting edge voltage remuneration in a dissemination framework is highlighted.

Related Work

The author in talked about that the powerful hardware gadget and Certainties gadgets are generally use in control framework shape past numerous years. Since this Certainties are quick exchanging velocity and high reaction as contrast with the standard compensator. They clarified that the SVC is associated in the supply side or customer side by appropriate game plan. It enhances the voltage as well as enhances the power factor.

The creators in talked about that, a little scale SVC lab try adequately shows SVC’s capacity in redressing power factor using Force SCR’s in a stage controlled circuit. The small-scale SVC circuit fills in as a viable method to perceive how control hardware helps utilities convey effective power by adaptable and quick alteration of the typically slacking power system.

The authors in discussed that proposes of a new method of controlling the injected harmonics of TSC-TCRsystem by using SVC.The scheme can be effectively used at the existing TSC-TCR installations to reduce harmonic injections while catering to fluctuating loads.The authors in discussed that the solution for reactive power compensation and harmonic filtering by combining a shunt passive filter in series with a small rated active filter and a synchronous vacuum circuit breaker with permanent magnetic actuator. Passive filters reduce the harmonic currents flowing into the source, and the active filter improves the filtering characteristics of the passive filter.

The authors in discussed that the model simulation is done using Matlab/Simulink software and voltages and transient currents generated when correcting power factor are studies once by using Capacitor bank and circuit breaker and once by using SVC.

Proposed Methodology

It comprises of a shunt associated capacitor which is associated in arrangement with bidirectional thyristor switch. The impedance or reactance of this gadget is fluctuated in a stepwise way by controlling the thyristors either in a zero or full conduction activity. This controller offers no music, no drifters, and low misfortunes.

Design of the Compensator

As shown below the complete circuit diagram of compensator. The arduino reacive analoge signals at A0, A1 and A2. These are the analoge pins of arduino. Signal receive from CT and PT. TR 1 potential transforer and TR3 is current transformer. Two diodes are connected with PT to provide dc input to the arduino. Secondary of the PT is connected with some resistor and capacitors for filteration. The inductive and resistive load connected in series with the CT to measure the consumed current. This current is flowing through CT and and privide signal to aruduino. Arduino shows reading on lcd screen. Similary capacitor banks are also connected in parallel with loads via switch. When current is drwan by the load then the result will be shown on the lcd screen. If the inductive load is connected with the supply then it drawn reactive power, this reactive power porduce lagging power factor. When power factor is low, then the CT which is connected with arduino produces a signal whichfurther connects TSC and capacitor conbinations.

Consequently it connect a required capacitor bank which is parallel to the load. Similarly if the inductive load is further increases then the reactive power drawn isalso more and more and hence it again connect another capacitor bank with the load and so on. Now if the inductive load is removed then microcontroller produces off signal and disconnect a capacitor bank from the load. But if resistive load is connected at the terminal then it cannot drwan any reactive power and it means that power factor will not be disturb and no capacitor bank will operate when there is a resistive load because it only drawn acitve power and all these results will be displayed on the LCD screen.

Result and Analysis

At the end we get our projectobjectives to compensate the voltage in distribution lines and improved the power transfer capability which is reduced due to various factors. Our model is now capable to compensate voltage which is lost due to many factors as discussed earlier in this paper.

This project demonstrates that the distribution static VAR compensator can be effectively applied in distribution system to solve the problem of poor dynamic performance and voltage regulation in secondary distribution system. Distribution SVCs and other FACTS controller will continue to be applied.

Conclusion

Although a variation in the terminal voltage is a common problem in electrical power system. In order to improve the terminal voltage, it is necessary to maintain power factor. The static VAR compensator is used for reactive power compensation in distribution line. Hence the prototype model is the design of thyristor switched capacitors. It is used at the end of terminal voltage at the distribution side.Practical was performed on this model which gives better and fast response for voltage regulation. It was checked on different points on distribution line and gave the same response. After deeply analysis we conclude that for all compensation methods in distribution lines the static VAR compensator especially thyristor switched capacitor is the best choice for compensation.

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