Water Shortage Around the World and Main Solutions to It

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Today, one major problem in the world is that human beings think that water will always be enough, when it’s not true. Water scarcity is either the lack of enough water or the lack of access to safe water. We all know that water is essential to life, no living thing can survive long without it. Although water covers 70% of the world, only 3% of it is freshwater, which is used to drink and bathe in, and around two-thirds of that water is turned into frozen glaciers. “Many countries already face crises in meeting water demands, and water rationing, even in certain parts of the USA, seems inevitable” (Saier Jr. 2007). As a result, more than one billion people in the world have no access to water and around two billion find water scarce for at least a few times each year. Moreover, insufficient sanitation is also a huge problem as they are exposed to diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever.

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Most of our water systems that keep ecosystems clean and feed human beings have become exhausted. Lakes, rivers, streams and aquifers are drying up or are being harmed from pollution, and more than half of the world’s wetlands have disappeared. “Water shortages are expected to have long-term effects on economic growth, putting increasing pressure on public budgets” (Saier Jr. 2007). Within the next forty to fifty years, the world’s population will increase which will result in more demands for water supply. Thus, climate change is changing patterns of weather and water around the world, which results in shortages of water and droughts in some areas, and floods in others.

Water shortage has many causes including the overuse of water, water pollution, droughts and distances from water sources. The overuse of water is a huge problem that a lot of people are dealing with, including animals and the land. Water may also be used by recreational activities without any care about the effects that it has on the world. For instance, brushing your teeth or washing the dishes while the water is running, spilling water and pipe leaks. Sometimes we are not even aware that we’re wasting so much water and harming the world around us. Water pollution is also a major problem in our world today. The water is polluted when industrial wastes enter the water, making it unfit for humans and other living things. Oil spills and sewage systems are some causes of water contamination which makes water scarce. Droughts are natural disasters of prolonged dry period which is caused by climate changes and other human activities. Further, when droughts occur, water sources dry up and people no longer have enough water for domestic and industrial uses. Distance is also another factor that causes water shortages, because in some dry regions, people live far away from oases and boreholes. Traveling to and from these few water sources take time, and it is also a struggle to carry water from such distant places to homes, which discourages the people who need water.

Hence, water scarcity has many effects that triggers the life of people and our environment as well. Lack of water may result in hunger and poverty, sanitation issues and diseases which may lead to death, conflicts such as warfare, and biodiversity losses. Water shortages have direct impacts on crops and livestock, which may lead to food scarcity and starvation. Thus, with no water, people are unable to take baths, wash their clothes or clean their homes properly. In poor countries like Africa, some children are not attending school because they’re getting sick from lack of water, and others are suffering from starvation. Water shortage also causes water contamination, which forces people to drink unhealthy water. Unsafe drinking water may result from poor water storage at home, which causes a lot of diseases like Malaria and plague. Also, having access to water has become a powerful economic issue in the world. Local conflicts, which sometimes results in warfare, are stirred up over the scarcity of water sources.With increasing population and growing needs, these problems are likely to multiply in the future.

Another thing is biodiversity loss, which is when water scarcity has negative impacts on our water sources like lakes and rivers. Water shortages harms our environment by the act of pollution and the loss of wetlands. Although water seems plentiful, it is limited and the world’s demand for freshwater has become a major issue due to the increase in population growth and greater wealth. Moreover, the changes in climate and environmental deterioration are changing the availability and quality of water. Moreover, conflicts and disputes over water, both within and between countries, are increasing and a few of them have led to violence, which all reflects on the governance and management of a certain place. Major reasons for these disputes include little rainfall, water supply; rapid population growth; industrialization and urbanization; and poor relations between countries. One example of water war are the disputes over water in the Nile Basin have been going on for centuries. For many years, Egyptians have relied on the waters of the Nile that flows out of the Ethiopian highlands and central Africa.

The Nile is the world’s largest river, and it passes through 11 countries. “The river is the only source of water for 40 million farmers irrigating their fields in a desert nation” (Pearce 2015). However, in 2011, Ethiopia started building a huge hydroelectric dam across Blue Nile and is currently about one-third completed. Ethiopia agrees that it is important to its own economic development. Another example of a water conflict is the dispute over the Kashmir Region, which has been a turning point between India and Pakistan for the last sixty years. Kashmir Region is a Himalayan Region which covers around 80,000 square miles, and is well-known for its beautiful lakes, meadows and mountains. Both India and Pakistan claim the region, however, they only have authority over parts of it. Since 2008, around 4,000 people have been killed in seperatist violence, and the Indian government agrees that the poll is higher.

Furthermore, water wars, both within and between nations, have big effects on water supplies and the people who depend on them. Economic damage and social decline that water conflicts cause further worsens a nation’s water management problems. That being said, water conservation is very important as we’re trying to save the lives of our countries, the generations to come, as well as the whole world. There are many solutions to water scarcity, for instance, education and recycling of water. There are a lot of opportunities out there that people can take advantage of in order to learn about the world around them. We can educate those who are not dealing with water shortage so they can be in a position to help, while those who are dealing with water scarcity can get educated on how to prevent the problem from worsening in the future.

Moreover, there are plenty of technologies that can be used to recycle water at home, most especially rainwater. This not only helps you prevent water shortage, it also helps you save money. Another solution to water scarcity is improving farming practices and the sewage system. farming and irrigation is often a huge factor when we’re talking about water scarcity. Practices need to be improved so that we don’t waste too much water and those who are using water are using it in a smart way. Also, without proper sanitation, water becomes contaminated and it causes a number of problems. By improving the sewage systems, we can prevent water shortages from becoming worse.

In addition to water scarcity, it’s effects and the solutions we can consider, water is a human right. It is our responsibility as human beings to stand up and defend ourselves, our lives and our world. We may think that water will never completely run out, but we cannot control climate change and how the world revolves around us, so it is important to take actions right now before we lose our world. The right to water allows everyone to have access to sufficient and safe water, and also, the right to sanitation allows people to have affordable and physical access to sanitation, that is safe and secure and ensures dignity.

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