Firstly, Mohan Malik (1999) has a less favourable view on how China has shaped nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament globally. He argues that China primary objective for its Asian policy as to weaken its biggest threat, being India by arming countries around India with nuclear weaponry, to constrain New Delhi (Malik 1999). This went against all international legislation regarding nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, which resulted in China having sanctions imposed on it by the United States (Malik 1999).
This source contained in-depth information on the balance of power concept of which China had engaged in, which led it to enable the proliferation of nuclear weapons. However, other than Myanmar and Pakistan, the author could have elaborated nuclear weapons that were proliferated to the other states near India. This source links to my research question as it demonstrates how China, as a powerful state, has detrimentally impacted the international push for nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation by purposeful proliferating nuclear technology, for personal gain.
Secondly, Liu and Wu (2010) similarly describe the self-centred nature of China’s actions who aims to sustain its fast-growing economy, even if it means undermining its non-proliferation commitments. The authors point out that China had a pivotal part in Iran developing nuclear and missile technology for a sustained period (Liu & Wu 2010). China's economy is growing at a fast rate, as is its energy demand, resulting in China’s zealously attempting to establish a supply of crude oil for the future, as its own reserves are exhausted (Liu & Wu 2010).
China wants to deepen its ties with Iran with the hope of accessing Caspian oil reserves and be less dependent on Arab nations (Liu & Wu 2010). This source contained a lot of information about the nature of Iran’s relationship with China, insightfully. However, the article could have contained more information on instanced when China has shielded Iran from the full brunt of sanctions imposed on it due to its nuclear activity. This source relates to my research question as it demonstrates how China has in this case negatively affected the process of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation internationally by actively arming a state, not recognised by the international community as a legal nuclear state.
This undermines the very process of eradicating nuclear weapons completely, whilst ensuring they are not illegally acquired by any other state. Thirdly, John W. Garver (2011) also illustrates that China’s stance on preventing nuclear proliferation is subject to what it believes to be in its self-interest. China assisted Pakistan the expansion of their nuclear arsenal and refused to stop when demanded by the United States in 1997, to maintain the power balance in South Asia pressuring India, China’s rival. (Garver 2011).
The author suggests that China wants to portray itself to the United States, as a trustworthy state which promotes the NPT’s agenda whilst supplying Iran with nuclear technology that a nuclearized Iran would be in China’s political interests in the Persian Gulf (Garver 2011). This source explains well why China is seemly willing to go against its commitment to international arms control by preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapon by actively supplying Pakistan, who is not one of the five legal nuclear states, with nuclear technology as this ensures China’s position of power in the global system.
The author could have had more in-depth information about China’s rivalry with India, to give more context behind China’s actions towards Pakistan. This article is relevant to my question as it provides evidence of how China has negatively influenced the process of international nuclear arms control, by actively proliferating nuclear weapons for its own personal gain. Finally, James V. Feinerman (1995) highlights how impactful China can be regarding international nuclear arms control. China has been unwilling to participate in international regimes regarding nuclear arms control in the past and has also actively undermined them.
This is exemplified in China refusing to join the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) until 1991 and by its sales of missiles to Syria and Pakistan, which threatened to further destabilise already fragile regions (Feinerman 1995). China must participate in international institutions to tackle nuclear proliferation as it is one the five declared nuclear states and one of the largest arms dealers in the world, therefore in order for the global fight to prevent nuclear proliferation not to be undermined, China’s participation is imperative (Feinerman 1995). This source demonstrated very well how critical China’s influence can be concerning the progress of nuclear non-proliferation worldwide with detailed, clear explanations.
This source could have expanded more on instances where China proliferated nuclear weapons to further show how China’s actions can immensely affect the fight against nuclear proliferation and complete nuclear disarmament. The article is relevant to my research question as it exhibits ways in which China hold a lot of sway on international nuclear arms control. All this literature shows how China’s actions have worked to undermine the work to advance nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation internationally, mainly due to prioritising its own self-interest.
These instances where China exhibit how has deliberately engaged in nuclear proliferation to help secure its position of power, and economic growth, even if it meant violating its commitments to nuclear arms control. This is significant to the overall success of the task to eliminate nuclear weapons, due to China being one of the declared nuclear states and a sizeable economic force.
To conclude, the existing literature on the role China has played on the global push for nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation clearly shows that China has indeed been a very significant state when it comes to determining the success of nuclear arms control internationally between 1990 and 2010. China has shown itself to be an impactful force for the furthering of the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation process within the international community but a similarly serious hindrance.