Climate change is a global concern throughout the years and it is still far from being resolved. According to the Global Shapers Survey (2017), which involves young individuals below the age of 30, the threat is “ranked as the most serious global issue with 48.8% of votes” followed by wars (38.9%) and inequality (30.8%). Global warming is the obvious cause of climate change and a result from the greenhouse effect leaves negative consequences on environmental, biological and human systems. With the constant change in weather patterns as well as sea levels and the increase of the Earth’s temperature (in which the current temperature, 0.57°C, as of September 2019 is said to be the warmest than the average September from 1981-2010 and it is near as the same level with September 2016), it is still unknown what is to be expected soon. The thought of eliminating climate change seems to be both unimaginable and unattainable but the problem itself, however, can be reduced instead. This is where the government, the community and the use of advanced technology plays a part in decreasing the issues of climate change. So what are the negative effects of climate change?
Over a period of time, public health has been considered as one of the victims for the vigorous change in climate. Heat waves and irregular change in temperature causes the constant body temperature of an individual to regulate in an uncommon way and are said to become worse in the future. In order to prevent the worse case scenario to occur, strategies have been thought and implemented carefully. As stated by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (n. d.), one of the strategies is the initiatives from the government, organisations and utilities by providing incentives and awards to individuals performing heat reduction actions such as giving coupons to landlord that purchases the most trees in local nurseries.
“Incentives from governments, utilities, and other organizations can include below-market loans, tax breaks, product rebates, grants, and giveaways.” (U.S Environmental Protection Agency, n. d., p. 4).
Through an accelerated “Green Permit Process”, Chicago has contributed incentives for the green infrastructure. Since 2005 till 2007, there has been a massive improvement in supporting grants for the recipients' green roof installation project.( U.S Environmental Protection Agency, 2008 , p. 4). In addition, CDC (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention) Building Resilience Against Climate Effects is adopting a five-step process to come up with methods to help societies for the health consequences of climate change. The five step process includes predicting the climate consequences and evaluating the powerlessness, estimating the disease burden, rating the public health interventions, expanding and applying a Climate and Health adaptation plan and evaluating impact and increasing the quality of activities in steadily. Since 2010, CDC has been a program that aided 10 grantees to the current 18 grantees by the use of BRACE (Being resilience against climate effects). (“CDC’s building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) Framework”, 2019 ).
The depletion of ice has accelerated over time that contributes to rising of sea water level. Based on observations of ocean temperature and model results, thermal expansion is believed to be one amongst the foremost contributors to historical changes within the sea water level. According to the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mean air temperatures are presumably to rise 2.5ºC over the next century with a doable lowest increase of 1.5ºC and a highest increase of 4.5ºC. It is expected that sea level will rise by 61cm with the lowest estimate being 31cm and the highest 110cm. These figures apply when no measures are taken to reduce the release of greenhouse gases. (Eisma, 1995). As a consequence of the greenhouse effect, the climate may get warmer in the near future. Theoretically, the sea level may rise in the future by means of three mechanisms, all of which are inadequate for a catastrophic flood.
This sea-level scenarios could lead to a various range of threats to human settlements, natural ecosystems and landscapes. Climate change can manifest to a higher temperature and hence increased the frequency and intensity of storms, rainfall and floods. Higher temperatures have impacts on human settlement, build environment, people, and nature of cities. Due to the heat, the water balance of cities will be altered, resulting in water logging or shortages. There are several methods that can be applied in reducing and preventing the effect of sea level from rising and stop the Arctic ice from melting.
Strategies include reducing carbon footprint for instance going for a public transportation or carpool may reduce the emission produced. Moreover, other strategies may include being conservative with energy usage, invest in recycling, reduce food waste and educate others about the consequences of climate change. Nonetheless, the efficacy of these strategies can be accessed based on the performance in terms of increasing preparedness, resilience or adaptive capacity for sea level rise impacts or reducing population's exposure to sea level rise impacts.
The Ozone layer is a protector against the strong Sun bombarding the planet with toxic UV radiation. Over the years, by taking other lucrative forms, people have been trying to protect it. Manmade halocarbon refrigerants such as CFCs, halons and freons are the main reason for ozone depletion and create 'ozone depleting substances' (ODS) when released into the atmosphere. Such harmful substances strike and break the ozone layers apart. However, there are strategies that can limit ozone depletion, one of it will be using the Aeroponics method. Urban farming systems called the Aerofarms include a smart application of technology that does not guarantee an alternative to traditional farming but also requires less storage, less water and no pesticides. Aerofarms provide an indoor environment for growing a wide range of leafy greens and herbs at room temperature in a shorter time by using LEDs in stacked units to improve energy efficiency. Aeroponic techniques use 20% less water than traditional skills and do not use any pesticide. As soil is replaced through a proprietary reusable cloth developing medium, there is no washing of produce required, resulting in an extend in shelf-life of the produce from one to 4 weeks relying on what was being grown. Transportation costs are less considered that the produce is bought in urban itself. (“Urban farming systems,” 2019).
The Montreal Protocol banned the production of ozone-depleting substances in 1989, since then the amount of chlorine and other atmospheric ozone-depleting substances has fallen. In about 50 years, scientists estimate that chlorine levels will return to their natural state. As Solomon quote 'We are beginning to see clear signs that society's actions to phase out chlorofluorocarbons are actually intended to help restore the Antarctic ozone layer'. (Toor, 2016, para 5).
Despite being the universal problem in the world that is challenging to eradicate, the effects of climate change can be lessened in different approaches. The role of the government with regards to the issue is by motivating and rewarding the people who participated in reducing the effects. Apart from that, the society also plays a part in lowering the effects that contribute to climate change by reducing daily activities. Lastly, the proper use of Aeroponics will help in restricting the depletion of the ozone layer. With the strategies mentioned above, the problems caused by climate change will, hopefully, be overcome.
- 5 ways to prevent ozone depletion. (2019, March 29). Community Writer. Retrieved from https://greendiary.com/5-ways-prevent-ozone-depletion.html?amp
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2019, September 9). CDC’s building resilience against climate effects (BRACE) framework. Retrieved October 25, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/climateandhealth/default.htm.
- Eisma, D. (Ed. ). (1995). Climate change: impact on coastal habitation. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers.
- Global shapers survey. Retrieved from http://www.shaperssurvey2017.org/static/data/WEF_GSC_Annual_Survey_2017.pdf (Retrieved on October 20, 2019)
- natgeo. (2018, February 12). Climate 101: Ozone Depletion | National Geographic [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/aU6pxSNDPhs
- Surface air temperature for September 2019. Climate change services https://climate.copernicus.eu/surface-air-temperature-september-2019 (Retrieved on October 28, 2019)
- Toor, A. (2016, June 30). The world's decision to fix the ozone hole is paying off 30 years later. The Verge. Retrieved from https://www.theverge.com/2016/6/30/12067830/ozone-hole-antarctica-healing-study
- United States. (n. d.). Climate Protection Partnership Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Reducing urban heat islands: compendium of strategies . Retrieved from October 14 2019, https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-06/documents/activitiescompendium.pdf
- Revkin, A. C. (2003, August 16). Study finds atmospheric decline in pesticide harmful to ozone. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/16/us/study-finds-atmospheric-decline-in-pesticide-harmful-to-ozone.html