David Brooks, in his essay, “What is the Democratic Story” (2018), claims that the leftist focus should be on supporting future generations, rather than merely fighting racism and class divisions. He supports this assertion with examples of how current Democratic stances have not gained their desired alliances with minorities, and how successful campaigns have been optimistic for the future. Brooks’ purpose is to convey the ineffectiveness of the current leftist focus, in order to shift people’s mindsets towards supporting the next generations instead. His audience includes educated Democrats with whom he establishes a candid relationship, frankly concluding, “We’re walking into the unprecedented” (A21).
In David Brooks’ article, “The Gender War is On! And Fake” (2018), he asserts that the so-called “gender war” only occurs when controversy arises in the political realm. Brooks supports this claim with examples of the rising gender equality for millennials, and of how political controversy sparks victimization of the opposite gender. His purpose is to emphasize that the “gender war” is really a fleeting political debate among millennials, in order to alleviate tension between the genders. He establishes a frank and informal relationship with his millennial audience, with both genders competing in this supposed “war”.
In the article, “How Evil is Tech?” (2017) by David Brooks, he suggests that technology should be used for the purpose of efficiency, instead of the time-consuming purpose that it currently has. Brooks supports this assertion with examples of how technology currently discourages interaction, fosters addiction, and disrupts privacy, in spite of facilitating some menial tasks. His purpose is to reveal the dark side of technology, in order to encourage readers to spend more time truly exploring the world around them. He establishes a respectful and semi formal relationship with his adult audience: those who experienced the technology boom years ago.
In Arianna Huffington’s article, “A Wake Up Call to End Drowsy Driving (2017), Huffington asserts that people need to stop driving when tired, to ensure their safety and the safety of those around them. She bolsters this assertion by citing statistics of the casualties from sleepy driving, as well as the reduced number of accidents following rideshare launches. Her purpose is to show people the dangers of sleepy driving, in order to discourage this action and encourage the use of rideshare services instead. Huffington’s audience includes working adults who drive frequently, with whom she establishes a supportive relationship.
Arianna Huffington, in her article, “Full STEAM Ahead: Tapping Into Our Full Potential” (2016), argues that women need to be more involved in STEAM education: education in science, technology, engineering, arts, and mathematics. Huffington strengthens her argument with examples of the lack of women in the STEAM field, and reasons why women in these jobs will boost the morale of themselves and society. Her purpose is to convey the necessity for women to work in the STEAM field, so that more will embrace these jobs and teach society something new. She establishes an encouraging relationship with her audience of young girls and millennials, who “have a special ability to bring out [the necessary] changes [in] our world”.
In the article, “How To Get Out Of A Cycle Of Outrage In A Trump World” (2017), by Arianna Huffington, she claims that because Trump’s actions will provoke anger frequently during his presidency, people must try to channel their frustrations in positive ways. Huffington bolsters her claim with examples of people being frustrated to the point of exhaustion, others who have stayed positive in spite of struggles, and practical ways to show resistance. Her purpose is to encourage people to stay as positive as possible in the midst of Trump’s presidency, so that they do not experience burnout from frustration. Huffington establishes an informal and supportive relationship with her audience of American Trump- opposers, who she hopes will “channel [their] valuable energy, and then take action”.
In the article, “Is It a Crime to Be Poor?” (2016), by Nicholas Kristof, he implies that the current justice system, which imprisons those in debt, is unfair and needs to change. He supports this implication with anecdotes from people who have experienced debt-related incarceration, as well as with statistics of how many arrests are made yearly. Kristof’s purpose is to shed light on the struggles that debtors go through as they experience incarceration, so that his readers would stand up for the impoverished. His audience consists of financially-stable Americans, with whom he establishes a respectful, semi formal relationship.
Nicholas Kristof, in the article, “America Is Guilty of Neglecting Kids: Our Own” (2018), argues that Trump’s policies have not only neglected immigrant children, but also children born in America. He strengthens his argument with statistics of child poverty, anecdotes of struggling children, and examples of how Trump’s policies are making these issues worse. Kristof’s purpose is to show people the reality of America’s struggling youth, so that the nation will advocate for them as they did for the immigrants. He establishes a semi formal relationship with his audience of American adults, many of whom are probably parents.
In Nicholas Kristof’s article, “North Korea, Trump, and Human Rights” (2018), he asserts that ultimately, North Korea will never gain American respect until the regime improves the treatment of its people. Kristoff reinforces this assertion with examples of North Korean propaganda, the brutality of their labor camps, and testimonial evidence of the need to improve human rights. Kristof’s purpose is to raise awareness of the lack of human rights in North Korea, so that people understand that America’s interaction with the regime needs to go beyond the issue of nuclear arms. He writes to an audience of politically-informed adults, with whom he establishes semi formal relationship.
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