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Research Paper on John Dalton and His Discoveries in Chemistry

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Dalton was a scientist also known as the father of the modern theory. Dalton chemistry involves the reason why he did an experiment on meteorologist and the atoms. In some cases, Dalton was right about his theory, and in others he was either completely wrong or off by a little math or science observation. With the technology we have now we are less likely to make mistakes now, but during the 1800’s they did not have as much technology, so they had to be very careful with everything. This research paper will introduce you to the different experiments you might have heard but never knew the details about.

In this paper I will talk and cover the history, life and what Daltons theory is. In this society there’s a lot of people whose color blind or wonder how the weatherman predicts the weather for the upcoming week that’s ahead of us. Well throughout the paper based on the research I conducted you will hopefully have all the questions you have asked yourself answered. Throughout all the sciences we have taken in high school we talked about Dalton law for a short period of time, but never knew the reason why it was named that. There’s many scientists in this world that have contributed to our daily lives today such as our job careers, or even how we live in the smallest and bigger ways there is. Dalton helped prove the myths about color blindness and even proved some scientist wrong who did the same experiments and thought that they were right and ended but being wrong in the end because of one small mistake that messed it up, but they never noticed. Dalton is like one of many famous scientists who grew up poor and had to end their childhood early to help finically around their house hold. In the end it paid off because of him it made it a step closer to find ways he did and continue to better them for the future we live in. Dalton proved many things in seventy-seven years he lived by being a teacher at twelve to principal at eighteen and because he was told he couldn’t attend one college it didn’t stop him from achieving his goals he move to another city to continue his education and he found ways to conduct many experiments. There was two that stood out the most and that the meteorology one and the color blindness. He really wanted to know about color blindness because Dalton and his brother Johnathon were both born color blind. Dalton did all he could to see if he could cure it or even find a way why this happened. In this paper I will talk his two known experiments and his other experiments he did with gas that has helped us today.

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John Dalton also known as the father of “Modern Atomic Theory” was born September 6, 1776 in Eaglesfield, England. He was one of three children that survived in the Quaker family he was born into. Dalton and his brother were both born color blind. His family was poor, so he had to end his childhood early to help around. Dalton went to school in his village in Cumberland. At the age of twelve he started teaching at the school to help with the income in their household. He the left to go work on the farm till he decided that he wanted to go back to teaching. At the age of fourteen he was the assistant of the school, and by the time Dalton was eighteen he was already the principal of the school from 1784-1793. Once he retired from being principal because he was not allowed to go to an English college, he moved to Manchester and became a math tutor at the New College in Manchester. Dalton joined the Philosophical Society that granted him access to the laboratory at the school. Since he had access to laboratory he decided that he would start working on labs that he had questions on himself such as color blindness, and meteorology. Dalton knew what he had to do for all of this to happen, so he started with meteorology and keeping up with his logs, once he finished he went so something he experienced himself which is colorblindness. John wrote a book on the meteorology lab and it was later published and out for sale. He wrote this book by keeping track of the weather in different cites for fifty-seven years to conduct this experiment. In 1837 he suffered from his first stroke, that following year he suffered from his second stroke that left him with a speech problem. In 1844 he had a third stroke and fell from his bed and was found the next morning when he was being brought his morning tea. He was buried at the Manchester Town Hall at the age of 77.

History

Dalton is an English chemist who proved the heredity of red and green color blindness. Dalton was the first scientist to explain the behavior of atoms term and the weight of its measurement and in 1803 he revealed the Daltons Law of Partial Pressure. Daltons law is a law that proved that a mixture of gases equal to the sum of partial pressures of gases mixture. In the early 1800s Dalton discovered that it’s not chemicals that’s cause this instead it’s a mechanical reaction of small particles. Dalton was curious about the different types of gasses and how they would react to each other. He had four principals for his entire theory that I will talk about and cover later in the paper. His fascination about the gases made him wonder if solid, liquid, and gas were made up of small particles. Because of this we found out that they are in fact made up of small particles. He decided to do this because at the time everything was made up of atoms and not gas. Dalton wanted to see if it was true or not because Democritus of Abdera’s a Greek philosopher more abstract theory of matter had went out the window and was now history that no one talked about. In 1803 when Dalton wrote his book he learned and stated in his book that atoms can not be created or destroyed, and that the atoms behavior is determined on its weight. Dalton was granted president of the school he went to for the Literary and Philosophical society till the day he died. When was offered to be in the royal society he turned it down, but once Dalton graduated he was given a red gown to wear for the graduation. They knew he was color blind and couldn’t see that color, so he fought for a different color, and all the society fought wit him and they were given a different color for the ceremony.

Discussion

What is the Daltons law of partial pressure? As explained earlier states that non-reacting gas that is equal to the sum of mixture gases. Dalton came up with this through ideals and assumptions more than facts that he observed directly. He had five assumptions to his theories and they were:

All matter is made up of atoms

All atoms can be identified by mass and properties

All compounds are made up of atom combination

All chemical reactions are a rearrangement of atoms

If an element reacts, their atoms may sometimes combine into more than a simple whole number ratio.

In the modern theory (as of today) when do experiments that a scientist such as Dalton do we try to see if their theory is right or is it wrong. Dalton theory has been proven wrong in some cases such as how he believed that atoms cannot be separated or divided when in fact it can. An atom can have, and atom added to it or even taken away, and that is what we call protons when added electrons when taken away and when its neutral we call it a neutron. We also proved that the atom in the same mass is incorrect. There is no atom on the chart that has the exact same mass it might be extremely close, but not the same numbers as one another. When Dalton was doing a meteorology experiment he was trying to prove that water cannot be evaporated as in induvial gas, but that they were mixing together instead of separating from one another.

Explanation: Earlier I talked about the five assumptions he had I will explain what he meant by each one when he said that all matter is made up of atoms he referred to his research that you cannot separate atoms from each other. He talked about how any given element must be identical to each other and all atoms are the same and some are identical. The third on was that atoms are made of combinations meaning in order for an atom to form it needs at least two different types to form the atom. The fourth one was that chemical reactions are a sign that atoms are being rearranged in a way the combination will change, and so will the whole number ratio be changing it to two different whole number. Lastly, he talked about combing the simple whole ratio meaning that there would just be multiples of each other. Because of the way that Dalton conducted his experiments and how he came up with his theories he did it in an intelligent way. The way he did it was he did it to his beliefs, but also left room for growth in the future for the future generations of scientist to add to his theory, and even test it out to see what all he was correct on. He even left room for errors because during his time there was not as much technology as there is today to help with your research. In the many experiments conducted by John Dalton he explained why he did what he did, and why believed that what he was doing was a good ideal to him. In science as long as you can provide that information like Dalton did then you can conduct your theory but not exactly like him. You will need lots of research to support your theory and your purpose on what you are trying to prove or correct with it.

Chemistry: Dalton had many theories in his life time of science and each part of his theory and experiments had their own formula. The one we will see most likely will be the one for the total pressure by the mixture of gasses that is presents. With this formula this is how he did the calculations for his theory on the non-reacting gases to the mixture gases to see how they would balance out to each other. When he did this, he observed many chemicals in his lab that he did and came up with the formula and theory, he also got the idea that atoms cannot be separated, because during his experiments they did not separate.

To Conclude this research paper, I believe that if it was not for John Dalton than we probably would not know how the different gases would react towards each other, or even that atoms make up almost everything. We also would not know that color blindness is a heredity thing and not a rare condition that happens to every one and so many people in the world. Dalton is one of many heroes and strong scientist even though he was poor he did not let that stop him from getting his education or pursuing in what he believe in or wanted to do. He had a goal to reach and made sure he did that. He gave up his childhood to take on a big responsibility, to help finically. Even after being told he could not go to a school near him to be by his family he did not let that stop him he just took what they said and moved to another city and went to the New College in Manchester and pursued his dreams and became known and even President of the department for what he went to school to be.

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