Please note! This essay has been submitted by a student.
A number of emotion theorists suggest that positive emotions are elicited by events that satisfy some motive, enhance one’s power of survival, or demonstrate the successful exercise of one’s capabilities. They often signal that activity toward the goal can terminate, or that resources can be freed for other exploits. Actually what are emotions in humans?Neurobiologist and psychologist alike have conceptualized an emotion as a concerted generally adaptive phasic change in psychological system in response to the value of a stimulus. In humans and other animals, we tend to call behavior emotional when we observe certain facial and vocal expressions like smiling or snarling, and when we see certain physiological changes such as hair standing on end or sweating.
Since most Computers do not yet possess faces or bodies, they cannot manifest this behavior. Some aspect of emotions are depends only on how human reacts to observing the behavior and some depends on how behavior is internally generated. I conclude that robots could certainly interacts socially with the human with in restricted domain they already do) but the correctly attributing and feelings to them would required that robots are situated in the world and constituted internally in respect that they relevantly similar with humans. Two problems can be generated in case of emotion in machine. One can be like it is become difficult to say that what aspect of behavior in emotional and other is not. Essentially any behavior might be recruited in the service of particular emotional state depending on the organism appraisal in particular state. Insofar as all behavior is Adaptec and homeostatic in some sense. Second when the behaviorist starting point has been chosen it become impossible to recover a theory of consciousness experience of emotions in feelings. In face feeling become epiphenomenal and at a minimum it certainly violates out intuitive concept of what a theory of emotion should include.
To start a system like this having some emotions that has the capacity for feeling. For beginning let there can build the capacity for the emotions varying complexity and flexibility value driven social behavior just like animals exhibits. Also ask our self what criteria we use to assign feelings and emotions to other peoples. If answer of this question indicates more than the right appearance are required will need an account of how emotions and feelings and social behavior are generated in humans and animals. An account that provide the minimal set of criteria that robots would need to meet in order to qualify as having emotions and feelings. It will seem misguided to some to put to so much effort into a prior understanding on mechanism ion behind the biological emotions and feelings in design of our robots that would have some those states.
Our initial question points towards another what is our intent in designing robots. It seems to clear that we can construct robots that behaves in sufficiently complex social fashion at least under some restricted circumstances for a limited time that they cause human with whom they interact attribute and emotions and feelings them. So if our purpose to design robots towards which human behave socially, a large part of enterprise consist in paying attention to the cues on the basis of which human observes attribute agency. Why give computers emotions?Giving computers emotions could be very useful for a whole variety of reasons.
For a start, it would be much easier and more enjoyable to interact with an emotional computer than with today’s unemotional machines. Imagine if your computer could recognize what emotional state you were in each time you sat down to use it, perhaps by scanning your facial expression. You arrive at work one Monday morning, and the computer detects that you are in a bad mood. Rather than simply asking you for your password, as computers do today, the emotionally-aware desktop PC might tell you a joke, or suggest that you read a particularly nice email first. Perhaps it has learnt from previous such mornings that you resent such attempts to cheer you up. In this case, it might ignore you until you had calmed down or had a coffee. It might be much more productive to work with a computer that was emotionally intelligent in this way than with today’s dumb machines. Many videogames already use simple learning algorithms to control non-player characters, such as monsters and baddies. In Tomb Raider, for example, the enemies faced by Lara Croft need only a few shots before they cotton on to your shooting style. If you are lying in wait for a dinosaur, it might remain in the shadows, tempting you to come out and take a pot shot so that it can attack you more easily. These are relatively simple programs, but the constant demand for better games means that the software is continually improving. It might well be that the first genuinely emotional computers are games consoles rather than spacecraft.
Other entertainment software with proto-emotional capacities is also available in the form of the virtual pets that live in personal computers. Many kids now keep dogs and cats as screen-pets, and more recently a virtual baby has been launched. A program called the Sims lets you design your own people, but they soon take on a life of their own, which can be fascinating to watch. The Sims is eerily human in their range of emotional behavior. They get angry, become depressed, and even fall in love. All these creatures are virtual – they live inside your computer, and their only ‘body’ is a picture on a screen. However, the first computerized creatures with real bodies are also now coming onto the toy market, and they too have proto-emotional capacities. First came little furry robots called ‘Furbies’ that fall asleep when tired, and make plaintiff cries when neglected for too long. Now there are also robotic dogs and cats that run around your living room without ever making a mess.
There is even a baby doll with a silicon brain and latex face that screws up into an expression of distress when it needs feeding. As with Kismet, people respond to these artificial life forms with natural sympathy. Their minds are not filled with ponderous doubts about whether these emotions are ‘real’ or not. They simply enjoy playing with them, asThey would with a real kitten or baby.
The gap between science fiction and science fact is closing. Today’s computers and robots still have a long way to go before they acquire a full human range of emotions, but they have already made some progress. In order to make further progress, engineers and computer scientists will have to join forces with psychologists. Increasing numbers of psychology students are opting to study robotics and artificial intelligence at university. The future lies in their hands.