Yellow Fever, Chagas Disease, and Japanese Encephalitis

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Table of Contents

  • Yellow Fever
  • Chagas Disease
  • Japaneese Encephalitis

Yellow Fever

Also known as yellow plague, can most commonly found in topical forest areas such as Africa, South America. There were epidemics of caribbean, subtropic and temperate region at North Ameica. Large epidemics was occured in Ethiopia in 1960-1962 and in senegal 1965-1966. There are tropics and subtropic conditions. WHO shows that 200 000 diseases were recorded and 30 000 deaths was occured during one year. 90% of patients with disease was African continents. In 2008 large number of yellow fever was reported in Togo. In 2016 large outbreak was occured in Angola. At that time there were massive vaccination campaign. First yellow fever definitive outbreak occured in island of Barbados in 1647 and in spanish colonist 1648. Introduction of sugar palntation was increased mosquito breeding sites and that inreased disese outbreaks. Also from deforestation reduce number of insectivorus birds and that increse number of mosquitoes. During 18-19 centuries in America 25 major outbreaks were detected. Serious cases in Cartagen 1741, Cuba 1762, Santa 1803. In 1878 20 000 people died in Missipissi River valley. There are three types of cycles such as forest cycle, intermediate and urban cycle. Vector control with vaccination programme can reduce yellow fever urban cycle. That helped to nearly eradicate yellow fever in South America. The cusative virus is flavivirus and vector is Aedes aegypti female mosquito. Size of flavivirus is about 25-65 nm and It is single stranded RNA virus. It can survive in 4 centigrades one months and freeze dried for many years. Disease transmission can occur from mosquitos, ticks and by other mehods. This is a type of haemorrhagic fever. Incubation period is 3-6 days. Most diseases are asymptomatic or mild. In sever diseases conditions may have high fever, severe headache, nausea, vomitting, and ominal pain and back pain. In diagnosis of the disease want to isolate virus in first few weeks and from polymerase chain reaction. In this disesese there is now specific treatments or therapy. Mamage patient as similar as other haemerrhagic fever. There is live attenuated vaccine which has long lasting immunity. Specially travellers want to take this vaccine.

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Chagas Disease

This is a vector origin condition around world. Causative organism is typanosoma cruzi vector is kising bug, cone nose bug. Habitats of this bug usually as nest resting of birds and mammals tree rock cavities. 137 types of this disease was identified. America trypanosoma more common in America. Carlo Chagad a physician in Brazil first identyfied above disease in 1909. But now it is known as negkect tropical disease. Other than human if affect to more than 150 animals in the world as rodents, opossums, monkeys, cats, dogs and armadillo. In 2015 disease frequency was 6.6 milion and also deaths were 8000. Also in endemic zones such as Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina and Colombia 8-10 milion people were affected. 41 200 new cases were detected. In non endemic zones 300 000-400 000 cased were detected. Apart from that 14 200 infant with congenital disease was detected. In 1990, 9300 deaths were reported and in 2010,10 300 deaths were reported. People with disease can find in anywhere the world but vector borne transmission marked only in America. The organism is lecated in blood, myocardium, smooth muscle and central nervou system. In morphology of the organism it has two morphology types. They are typomastigotes and amastigotes form. Trypomastigotes can be found in blood and have long slender apperance. Amastigotes can be found in several tissues and produce Leishmania donavani. Incubation period of the disease is 2 weeks-several months. Disease transmission occure due to contamination of bit wound with faeces of bug, infective stage is metacyclic trypomastigotes. It can enter into body through eye and lips though contamination with faeces. In addition from blood transfuion,organ transplant and congenitaly can transmit this disease. This is an infectious disease and more clinical features.there are two phases such as acute and chronic. In acute phase patient may be asymptomatic or undetected but may have edematous cutaneous lesions (chagoma). Positive Romanas sign, generalized edema, fever, myalgia and hepatomegaly. In chronic phase patient may have arrythmia, palpitation, chest pain, oedema, dizziness and dypnea. For the diagnosis of the disease can do several mehods.such as microscopic examination of peripheral blood culture parasite in NNN culture media, Xenodiagnosis and serological test.such as ELISA, IHA, IFAT. For management patient this have basicly two drugs. They are niurtimox (lampit) oral drug, benzniazole.

Japaneese Encephalitis

Japaneese encephalitis is inflammation of the brain. It is a type of flavivirus enveloped and single stranded RNA virus. There was a greate epidemic in Japan in 1924, in that 6 125 human cases were recorded and 3 797 deaths were recorded. In 1935 virus was first identified in Humanan and in 1938 virus isolated from mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Disesese spread occur with an epidemic in China, Korea and India in between 1940-1978. Disease transmission occur from bite of mosquito Culex tritaeniorhynchus.incubation period is 5- 15 days. In Asia there is a annualy reporting of JE cases about 70 000. Case fatality rate was 0.3%- 60%. Travellers have high chance get disease. For the prevention of this travellers want to take vaccines before travelling to endemic countries. This is more common in rural areas such places with cultivation and frequently flooding. Virus mainly circulate throught the mosquito and vertebral host. Mainly in pigs and wading birds. Patient with this disease may have sudden onset fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, difficulty moving.There is no treatment to cure the disease but can control the disease by releaving symptoms. For the diagnosis of the disease can do virus specipic antibody test in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. For the prevention of the disease people should use personal protection measures to prevent mosquito bite. Also want to get vaccine to risk population.

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